The Industrial Revolution World History Mr. Simmons
Industrial Revolution in Great Britain • Began in 1780’s because of improved farming methods, increased food supply lowered prices more money for purchase of manufactured goods and capital (investment money). • Entrepreneurs look for ways to invest money to make profit. • Cotton industry, spinning cotton from home called cottage industry. • New invention like the flying shuttle, spinning jenny, water-powered loom all improved production
Industrial Revolution in Great Britain (cont) • James Watt invented the steam engine which really improved the cotton industry. • By 1840 cotton cloth was Britain’s most valuable product. • Coal industry started to expand after invention of steam engine, railroads were also crucial to revolution because they were way to move the product. • The Rocket first public rail-line, ran from Liverpool to Manchester 32 miles apart, pulled 40 ton train at 16 mph.
The Spread of Industrialization • The Factory – shifts of labor to keep machines running. • Britain was first Industrial Nation, produced ½ of world’s cotton goods and coal. • Spread at different speeds, main factor was infrastructure • Germany, France, and others Industrialized quickly due to existing infrastructure(canals, roads) U.S. around 1800 started but there was no infrastructure, until Robert Fulton invented first steam-powered paddle boat and the laying of thousands of miles of railroad b/t 1830 and 1860.
Social Impact in Europe • Spurred growth of cities and created two new classes: industrial middle class and industrial working class. • European Population doubled b/t 1750 and 1850. • Movement from country into the cities. • Many who moved lived in miserable conditions • Replaced commercial capitalism with industrial capitalism – based on industrial production (industrial middle class) – vision, money-making, ambition, etc.
Social Impact in Europe (cont) • Horrible working conditions • 12-16 hr days, no minimum wage, no security, hot temps, no safety standards. Women and children made up 2/3 of work force in cotton industry. • Reforms - Factory Act of 1833 set 9 as legal age to work • Conditions led to movement called socialism – government owns and controls all industry, equality of all men • Idea of early thinkers replace competition with cooperation, later socialists like Karl Marx thought these ideas were not practical. • Robert Owen – utopian socialist
Discussion Questions • What labor reforms today do we have that were needed in the beginning of the industrial revolution? • What were conditions inside cities like as urbanization grew? • How do socialism and capitalism differ?
The Congress of Vienna • Austria in 1814, Restoring old European order (After Napoleon) • Restoration of monarchs in interest of peace and stability • Balancing of power through territorial loss/gain
The Conservative Order • Conservatism – based on tradition and social stability • Goal was to crush revolution and restore monarchies • Principle of intervention – countries have right to intervene in another country to stop revolution
Forces of Change • Liberalism and Nationalism • Basic principles of Liberalism are protecting the rights of individuals, separation of church and state, no sharing of power with lower class. • Nationalism awareness of people belonging to the same institutions, customs, traditions, language, culture. • Loyalty to a nation not a king
Revolutions of 1848 • Lack of trust by French towards the monarchy • Called for universal male suffrage • Napoleon’s nephew (Louis-Napoleon) was elected president 1848-1852 • Several other revolts led to democratic governments but a return to conservative rule was on the way.
Discussion Questions • What is the definitions of conservative and liberal today and how do they differ from the mid-19th century? • Why would democracy not stick as it has today in most European countries?
Concert of Europe • Nationalism led too…… • The Crimean War – Russia v. Ottoman Empire • Unification of many states (Germany and Italy) • Withdraw of Russia from European affairs until late 19th century
Italian and German Unification • Italy was split into three states: Piedmont, Sicily, and Naples, Giuseppe Garibaldi conquered both and handed power to Piedmont. • France had control of most of Germany • Prussian armies helped clear the way • William the I named Kaiser of unified German States
Nationalism and Reform • British stability • France reinstated empire, authoritarian rule of Napoleon III, he rebuilt Paris • Austria was a multinational state • In 1867 Austria split into the Austria-Hungary Empire • Russian Czar Alexander II freed serfs (1861), Emancipation Edict
Nationalism in U.S. • Issue of American Unity threatened by Slavery and Power • Civil War (1861-1865) • Issue of Slavery, votes • The struggle for power between Agrarian South and Industrial North • Bloody War – over 600,000 deaths • National unity prevailed as South surrendered
Emergence of Canada • Rule passed from French to British • Upper(English) and Lower (French) Canada were joined after several rebellions • 1867 British North American Act created Canada as an independent study
Discussion Questions • What strengths/weaknesses does unification bring? • How does race play an issue in unity today?
Romanticism • Reaction to enlightenment • Emphasized feeling and emotion • Examples - Edgar Allen Poe, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, Sir Walter Scott’s Ivanhoe, Beethoven • Two Basic Beliefs: art reflects artist’s inner soul and art should abandon reason for emotion.
A New Age of Science • Scientific Discoveries brought on by Industrial Revolution and Secularization • Louis Pasteur – germ theory of disease (Pasteurization) • Dmitry Mendeleyev classified all elements based on weight • Darwin’s theory of evolution and natural selection
Realism • Means world should be looked at realistically, rejected romanticisms art movement • Charles Dickens books describe brutal details of what urban poverty was really like. • Gustave Courbet realist painter painted real-life stills of workers, peasants, etc. He would paint only what he could see.
Discussion Questions • Why were Darwin’s theories so controversial? • What is the best form of Romanticism still alive in today’s society? • Why do some people disagree with realism?