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Ch. 11 Sec. 1. The Civil War: Choosing Sides. After Ft. Sumter, many Southern officers had to decide if they would stay in the Union Army, or join the CSA. About 1/3 of the Union officers resigned, joined CSA. Robert E. Lee. Choosing Sides. 1. Fighting a defensive war.

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choosing sides

After Ft. Sumter, many Southern officers had to decide if they would stay in the Union Army, or join the CSA.

    • About 1/3 of the Union officers resigned, joined CSA.
      • Robert E. Lee
Choosing Sides
the confederacy advantages

1. Fighting a defensive war.

    • Did not have to defeat the North.
  • 2. Superior moral cause.
  • 3. Generally more talented officers.
  • 4. Frontier background
  • 5. Possibility of foreign intervention.
The Confederacy-Advantages
the union advantages

1. Industrial capacity

2. Superior transportation.

3. Superior finances.

4. Superior leadership (Presidential)

5. Superior gov’t structure.

6. Dominance of naval power

7. Population

The Union- Advantages
northern strategy

Anaconda Plan (Winfield Scott’s Plan)-

    • 1. Blockade the South
      • Weaken them by attrition
    • 2. Control the Mississippi River.
    • 3. Split the CSA by controlling the Tennessee River.
    • 4. Capture Vicksburg, New Orleans, and Memphis
Northern Strategy
southern strategy

1. Defensive war of attrition.

  • 2. Receive European support.
    • Poor strategy. Believed that by withholding cotton from Europe, they would be willing to help with the war. Instead, Europe seeks cotton elsewhere.
    • The CSA also strangely requested no taxes from the states in 1861.
Southern Strategy
the armies


    • 1.5 Million serve in Union Army
    • 1 out of 7 deserted
    • 30% of enlisted men are draftees
  • South
    • 900,000 serve the CSA
    • 1 out of 9 deserted
    • 6% of enlisted are draftees
  • Majority on both sides are under 21.
The Armies

Conscription-the forcing of people into military service- was used to draft soldiers in the Union.

    • To enforce, Lincoln suspended habeas corpus for those who resisted the draft or supported the CSA.
      • Greatly criticized.


    • 94,000 battle deaths, 210,000 disease
  • CSA
    • 90,000 battle deaths, 180,000 disease
  • Almost 600,000 deaths out of a pop. Of 31 million.
    • Poor medical treatment.
        • “Ninety-nine surgeons out of one hundred would not know whether his patient had horse distemper, lame toe, or any other disease.”
        • “There are not less than a dozen doctors from whom our men have as much to fear as from their Northern enemies.”
political dissention in the north

Huge difference of opinion of the war in the North.

    • War Democrats
      • Favored the war, believed the Union was indispensible.
    • “Copperheads” or Peace Democrats
      • Wanted a peaceful solution to the war.
        • Were often criticized and accused of treason.
  • The south had a disorganized political party system.
    • Opinions to the war were personal and petty.
Political Dissention in the North
the trent affair

April 1861- CSA tries to send diplomats, John Slidell and James Mason to Britain.

    • Stopped by a Union ship and arrested.
    • British outraged- organize troops in Canada.
      • Union apologizes, releases Mason and Slidell.
        • Fear of British-CSA alliance
The Trent Affair
finances in north and south

Union relies of taxes and bonds.

    • Passes a National Banking Act.
    • Print $150M in greenbacks.
  • CSA prints $100M in crudely engraved bills
    • Results in huge inflation.
    • 900% inflation for CSA
    • 0% for Union
Finances in North and South