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CHAPTER 12

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CHAPTER 12

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  1. CHAPTER 12 The Civil War 1861-1865

  2. SECTION 1 From Bull Run to Antietam

  3. I. Describe the First Battle of Bull Run and the war preparations of the two sides. • A. Civil War • War between the Northern (Union) and Southern (Confederate) states between 1861-1865 • Many Civil War battles had two names • a. South - tended to connect a battle with the nearest town • b. North – some physical feature close by the battlefield

  4. I. Describe the First Battle of Bull Run and the war preparations of the two sides. • B. First Battle of Bull Run • 1. First time in the history of warfare that troops were moved by train • 2. The first major battle of the Civil War was the First Battle of Bull Run • 3. Causalities – military term for those killed, wounded, captured, or missing in action

  5. I. Describe the First Battle of Bull Run and the war preparations of the two sides. • C. Preparing for War • 1. Strengths and Weaknesses • a. North • 1. North had more railroads – quick movement of troops, food, and supplies • 2. North had more factories – guns, ammo, shoes • 3. North had more money • 4. North already had a government – army and navy • 5. 2/3 of the nation’s population lived in the Union

  6. I. Describe the First Battle of Bull Run and the war preparations of the two sides. • C. Preparing for War • 1. Strengths and Weaknesses • b. South • 1. Majority of the nation’s trained officers were Southerners • 2. Fighting to preserve their way of life

  7. I. Describe the First Battle of Bull Run and the war preparations of the two sides. • C. Preparing for War • 2. Union Military Strategies • a. Naval blockade • b. General Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan was to blockade the South and take control of the Mississippi River

  8. I. Describe the First Battle of Bull Run and the war preparations of the two sides. • C. Preparing for War • 3. Confederate War Strategies • a. Prepare and Wait - Defensive • b. War of Attrition – one side inflicts continuous losses on the enemy in order to wear down its strength

  9. I. Describe the First Battle of Bull Run and the war preparations of the two sides. • C. Preparing for War • 4. Tactics and Technology • a. Bullet shaped ammo • b. Rifling – spiral groove gun barrel • c. Shells – devices that exploded in the air or when they hit something • d. Canister – special type of shell filled with bullets

  10. II. Explain the importance of Union victories in the western part of the Confederacy during 1862. • A. Battles in the West took place mainly along rivers. • B. Forts Henry and Donelson • 1. Protected the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers • 2. Union led by Gen. Ulysses S. Grant • 3. Union victories allowed Grant and 42,000 soldiers farther south along the Tennessee River into Alabama and Mississippi

  11. II. Explain the importance of Union victories in the western part of the Confederacy during 1862. • C. Battle of Shiloh • 1. Pittsburg Landing, TN near Corinth, MS • 2. Grant’s Union troops were camped at Shiloh Church outside Pittsburg Landing • 3. Confederate launch a surprise attack – Union did not retreat • 4. Union forces won the Battle of Shiloh, thanks to a counterattack by Grant’s forces, supported by newly arrived Union troops from Nashville • 5. Bloody battle shattered the illusion of the glory of war • 6. Destroyed northern hopes that Confederacy would be soon defeated

  12. II. Explain the importance of Union victories in the western part of the Confederacy during 1862. • D. Action on the Mississippi • 1. Grant advanced Union troops from the North • 2. Union navy led by David Farragut advanced up the Mississippi River from the Gulf of Mexico • 3. Union seized the Mississippi River including Memphis, TN • 4. Only remaining Confederate holdings were Vicksburg, MS and Port Hudson, LA • 5. If Grant’s army could link with the Union navy, the Confederacy would be split into two parts

  13. III. Describe the outcome of the battles in the East during 1862. • A. The Monitor and the Merrimack • 1. Merrimack – Confederate wooden steamship with iron plates • 2. Monitor – Union response – tin can on a raft • 3. Merrimack withdrew from the battle – Confederacy destroyed it to keep the Union from taking control of it • 4. Wooden navies were now obsolete

  14. III. Describe the outcome of the battles in the East during 1862.

  15. III. Describe the outcome of the battles in the East during 1862. • B. Peninsular Campaign • 1. Union Gen. George McClellan – second attempt to capture the Confederate capital Richmond, VA • 2. In battles in the East, McClellan was best known for his wise strategies

  16. III. Describe the outcome of the battles in the East during 1862. • C. Robert E. Lee • 1. Native of Virginia – graduated from West Point • 2. Lincoln offered Lee a position in the Union prior to the war • 3. Opposed slavery and secession • 4. Became the top military advisor to Confederate President Jefferson Davis • 5. Commanded the Army of Northern Virginia

  17. III. Describe the outcome of the battles in the East during 1862. • D. The South Attacks • 1. Lee divided his army and sent half to strengthen Gen. Stonewall Jackson in western Virginia • 2. Gen. Jackson acted as if he was headed for Washington, D.C., but instead joined Gen. Lee outside Richmond, VA • 3. Gen. Lee and Jackson attacked the Union and Gen. McClellan in a series of battles called the Seven Days’ Battles

  18. III. Describe the outcome of the battles in the East during 1862. • D. The South Attacks • 4. The Second Battle of Bull Run • a. Another Confederate victory for Gen. Lee and Jackson • b. Richmond, VA was secure for the moment

  19. III. Describe the outcome of the battles in the East during 1862.

  20. III. Describe the outcome of the battles in the East during 1862. • D. The South Attacks • 5. The Battle of Antietam • a. Gen. Lee decided to attack the North • b. Gen. Lee hoped to arouse the support of Europe for the South • c. Gen. Lee met Gen. McClellan at Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, MD • d. Battle of Antietam – Bloodiest Day of Civil War • e. The Battle of Antietam denied Gen. Robert E. Lee a chance to win a battle on Union soil

  21. SECTION 2 Life Behind the Lines

  22. I. Compare the effects of wartime politics on the Confederate and Union governments. • A. Politics in the South • 1. The Confederate war effort was hurt by Southerner’s fierce devotion to states’ rights • 2. Mobilizing for War • a. During the Civil War, both the Confederate and Union governments created a draft • b. Draft – required military service

  23. I. Compare the effects of wartime politics on the Confederate and Union governments. • A. Politics in the South • 3. Seeking Help from Europe • a. Confederate government sent representatives to Great Britain and France • b. Confederacy failed to gain recognition – or official acceptance, as an independent nation • c. Great Britain allowed ports to be used to build Confederate privateers • d. The Alabama captured more than 60 northern merchant ships • e. Europe adopted a wait-and-see attitude

  24. I. Compare the effects of wartime politics on the Confederate and Union governments. • B. Politics in the North • 1. Tensions with Great Britain • a. The Union vigorously protested Great Britain’s support of the Confederacy • 2. Republicans in Control • a. With the departure of Southern Congressmen, Republicans passed laws to strengthen the power of the federal government

  25. I. Compare the effects of wartime politics on the Confederate and Union governments. • B. Politics in the North • 3. Financial Measures • a. Republican Congress passed the first federal tax on income • b. In 1862, Congress passed an act that created a national currency, called Greenbacks • c. Greenbacks – national currency not backed by gold, but declared by Congress to be acceptable for legal payment

  26. I. Compare the effects of wartime politics on the Confederate and Union governments. • B. Politics in the North • 4. Emergency Wartime Actions • a. Efforts focused on raising troops and uniting the nation behind the war effort • b. Four slave states remained in the Union – Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, and Kentucky • c. Martial Law – emergency rule by military authorities, during which some Bill of Rights guarantees are suspended

  27. I. Compare the effects of wartime politics on the Confederate and Union governments. • B. Politics in the North • 5. Opposition to the War • a. Although Democrats could not control Congress, anti-war Northern Democrats called Copperheads, warned Republicans that policies would bring a flood of free slaves to the North

  28. I. Compare the effects of wartime politics on the Confederate and Union governments. • B. Politics in the North • 5. Opposition to the War • b. Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus – legal protection against unlawful imprisonment • c. Without the writ of habeas corpus – people can be held in jail for indefinite periods without even being charged with a crime

  29. II. Describe the Emancipation Proclamation and its effects, especially on African Americans. • A. During the early part of the war, Lincoln’s main goal was to preserve the Union. • B. Lincoln and Slavery • 1. Under the Constitution, Lincoln was bound only to preserve and protect the nation • 2. He did not believe that he had the legal authority to abolish slavery • 3. He gradually regarded ending slavery as one more strategy for winning the war

  30. II. Describe the Emancipation Proclamation and its effects, especially on African Americans. • C. Emancipation Proclamation • 1. Proclamation that slaves in areas of rebellion against the government would be free • D. Reaction to the Proclamation • 1. Condemned in the South – debated in the North • 2. Did not free enslaved people in border states or areas controlled by the Union • 3. Frederick Douglas much more positive • 4. Proclamation and Confederate defeat at Antietam = no intervention from France and Great Britain

  31. II. Describe the Emancipation Proclamation and its effects, especially on African Americans.

  32. II. Describe the Emancipation Proclamation and its effects, especially on African Americans. • E. African Americans Fight • 1. Southern slaves encouraged to free themselves by escaping to the protection of Union troops • 2. Encouraged African Americans to serve in the Union Army

  33. II. Describe the Emancipation Proclamation and its effects, especially on African Americans. • E. African Americans Fight • 3. Contraband Issue • a. Contraband – property seized from an enemy during wartime • b. If slaves were property, then they could be considered contraband

  34. II. Describe the Emancipation Proclamation and its effects, especially on African Americans. • E. African Americans Fight • 4. African American soldiers • a. By 1865, 180,000 had enlisted in the Union army, which was 10% of total troops for the North • b. Sergeant William Carney became the first African American to earn the Congressional Medal of Honor

  35. III. List the hardships that befell the North and the South during the war. • A. The Union’s policies toward slavery resulted in: • 1. Depleted the South’s labor force • 2. Provided the North with an even greater numerical advantage

  36. III. List the hardships that befell the North and the South during the war. • B. The Southern Economy • 1. One of the major hardships faced by the Confederacy during the war was a food shortage • 2. Planters did not shift from growing cotton to growing food crops • 3. Union blockades, food riots erupted • 4. Labor shortages and lack of goods contributed to inflation

  37. III. List the hardships that befell the North and the South during the war. • C. The Northern Economy • 1. Industries that depended on Southern markets or cotton were hurt • 2. North was not harmed in the way the South was • 3. Northern industry boomed if they were war-related

  38. III. List the hardships that befell the North and the South during the war. • D. Prison Camps • 1. Several Northern penitentiaries housed Confederate prisoners • 2. The most famous Southern prison camps was in Andersonville, GA • a. Capacity 10,000 – held 35,000 on 26 acres • b. Approximately 100 died a day mainly from starvation

  39. III. List the hardships that befell the North and the South during the war. • E. Improving Medical Conditions • 1. ¼ of all soldiers did not survive the war • 2. If wounded, 1/5 died later due to wounds resulting from infection • 3. Clara Barton “Angel of the Battlefield” and the American Red Cross • 4. United States Sanitary Commission

  40. SECTION 3 The Tide of War Turns

  41. I. Analyze the importance of Lee’s victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. • A. Victories for Lee • 1. Battle of Fredericksburg • a. Lincoln replaced McClellan with Gen. Ambrose Burnside • b. Gen. Burnside quickly advanced to Virginia toward Richmond • c. Gen. Burnside lost the Battle of Fredericksburg by trying to charge into Confederate gunfire • d. Gen. Burnside resigned

  42. I. Analyze the importance of Lee’s victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. • A. Victories for Lee • 2. Battle of Chancellorsville • a. Gen. Joseph “Fighting Joe” Hooker led Union • b. Thick woods and built defenses • c. Gen. Lee sent Gen. Stonewall Jackson and 26,000 men on a side to attack

  43. I. Analyze the importance of Lee’s victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. • A. Victories for Lee • 2. Battle of Chancellorsville • d. At night, Gen. Jackson scouted the enemy Union but returned to camp during dark. Gen. Jackson was accidentally shot and wounded by his own Confederates – died of complications • e. Gen. Lee won a brilliant victory at Chancellorsville through the tactic of dividing his forces

  44. I. Analyze the importance of Lee’s victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville.

  45. II. Explain how the Battle of Gettysburg and Vicksburg turned the war in the North’s favor. • A. The defeats at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville were the low points for the Union. • B. Confederates were finding supplies to be scarce – especially shoes • C. Gen. Lee crossed into Pennsylvania because he wanted a victory on northern soil.

  46. II. Explain how the Battle of Gettysburg and Vicksburg turned the war in the North’s favor. • D. Battle of Gettysburg • 1. July 1, 1863 • a. The Union and Confederate lines positioned themselves along separate ridges • b. Gen. Lee’s Confederates won the first day’s fighting • c. Gen. Lee’s confidence was high • d. Union was led by Gen. George Meade

  47. II. Explain how the Battle of Gettysburg and Vicksburg turned the war in the North’s favor. • D. Battle of Gettysburg • 2. July 2, 1863 • a. Gen. Lee’s second in-command was Gen. James Longstreet • b. Gen. Longstreet advised against attack • c. It took Confederates until 4:00 PM to be ready to attack – gave Union time for reinforcements

  48. II. Explain how the Battle of Gettysburg and Vicksburg turned the war in the North’s favor. • D. Battle of Gettysburg • 2. July 2, 1863 • d. Little Round Top Hill • 1. Troops from Alabama took the hill so they could bombard Union lines • 2. Troops from Maine repeated attacks until Confederates ran out of ammo and charged the hill with bayonets

  49. II. Explain how the Battle of Gettysburg and Vicksburg turned the war in the North’s favor. • D. Battle of Gettysburg • 3. July 3, 1863 • a. 150 Confederate cannons began heaviest artillery barrage of the war • b. The Union ordered a cease fire to save ammo • c. Confederates charged the middle of the Union lines

  50. II. Explain how the Battle of Gettysburg and Vicksburg turned the war in the North’s favor. • D. Battle of Gettysburg • 3. July 3, 1863 • d. Pickett’s Charge • 1. Gen. George Pickett among three other Confederate commanders to lead 5,000 men each across the open ground between the two ridges • 2. Hundreds of Union canister shells rained down • 3. Confederate forces at Gettysburg were blown apart by canister shells in Pickett’s Charge • 4. Pickett’s Charge ended the bloodiest battle of the Civil War