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UNIT 9 Civil law vs. Criminal law A Day in a Civil Court PowerPoint Presentation
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UNIT 9 Civil law vs. Criminal law A Day in a Civil Court

UNIT 9 Civil law vs. Criminal law A Day in a Civil Court

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UNIT 9 Civil law vs. Criminal law A Day in a Civil Court

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  1. UNIT 9 Civil law vs. Criminal law A Day in a Civil Court

  2. Civil law vs. Criminal law Consider the following case: A man was driving too fast along a road in a city suburb and as a result he knocked down and badly injured a pedestrian. Was a civil or criminal wrong committed, or both?

  3. Civil law vs. Criminal law criminal wrong – reckless driving civil wrong – negligence different legal consequences under criminal and civil law

  4. Civil law vs. Criminal law CIVIL LAW CRIMINAL LAW • is concerned with disputes between individuals • action is taken by the aggrieved party CLAIMANT vs DEFENDANT (PLAINTIFF) • defendant liable on the BALANCE OF PROBABILITIES eg. marital dispute, hire-purchase problems, trespass, negligence etc. • is concerned with wrongs committed against an individual but regarded as harmful to society as a whole • action is taken against the wrong-doer in the name of society PROSECUTOR vs DEFENDANT eg. stealing, robbery, murder, rape, embezzlement, arson etc.

  5. Civil law vs. Criminal law- different procedure; different outcome; differentterminology Civil proceedings Criminal proceedings • a claimantsues (brings an action against) a defendant = a lawsuit • judgement for the claimant (if the proceedings are successful) • remedy – damages, injunction, specific performance … • liable # not liable - defendant liable on the BALANCE OF PROBABILITIES • a prosecutor prosecutes (brings a case against) a defendant = criminal prosecution • a verdict – a decision of a jury • conviction (if prosecution successful) or acquittal • a sentence – the punishment given by a judge based on the verdict • defendant punished by a variety of punishments (imprisonment, fine, probation, community work etc.) • guilty # not guilty - liable # not liable • - BURDEN OF PROOF – defendant guilty beyond a reasonable doubt

  6. Essential terms CIVIL LAW CRIMINAL LAW - to commit a civil wrong = počiniti građanski prijestup • a dispute = spor • aggrieved party = injured party = oštećena strana/stranka • to sue; to take an action = to bring an action against = tužiti, pokrenuti postupak, dići tužbu • claimant (plaintiff) = tužitelj, podnositelj (odštetnog zahtjeva) • defendant = tuženik, optuženik, branjenik • Judgement = presuda, sudska odluka • damages = odšteta • injunction = sudski nalog • specific performance = izvršenje ugovora • Iiable for = (pravno) odgovoran • balance of probabilities = stupanj vjerojatnosti • to commit a criminal wrong (crime) = počiniti kazneno djelo • to charge with = optužiti, teretiti za • to bring a case against = tužiti • to prosecute (prosecutor, prosecution) = kazneno goniti, tužiti u kaznenom posupku (tužitelj, tužiteljstvo) • defendant = optuženik, osumnjičenik, tuženik • to punish – punishment = kazniti – kazna, sankcija • conviction (to convict) = osuđujuća presuda, proglašavanje krivnje • acquittal (to acquit) = oslobađajuća presuda • a verdict = pravorijek (odluka) porote • a sentence (to sentence to) = osuda, kazna (koju izriče sudac na temelju odluke porote) • guilty / liable for = kriv, odgovoran • imprisonment = zatvor, izdržavanje zatvorske kazne • burden of proof = teret dokazivanja

  7. Vocabulary practice – Different types of torts and crimes Are the following wrongs civil , criminal or both? Sort them out. theft / rape / manslaughter / medical negligence / negligent damage to private property / assault / trespass / defamation / fraud / false imprisonment / marital dispute / domestic violence / arson / bribery / forgery / kidnapping /

  8. Vocabulary work – Different types of crimes and torts – Answer key

  9. Vocabulary practice II Complete the following text contrasting criminal and civil law by choosing from the words/phrases below. compensation / contract / crime / damages / family law / intellectual property / plaintiff / police / private individual / prosecution / the accused / the defendant / theft / to bring a case / to bring an action / to fine / to charge someone with something Criminal law vs Civil law One category is the criminal law – the law dealing with _______. A case is called a______.The case is instituted by the prosecutor, who takes over the case from the ______ whohave already decided _______ the defendant or __________ with specifiedcrimes. The civil law is much more wide-ranging. The civil law includes the law of_________ and __________ __________. (or ___________ __________). In a civil case, the___________, normally a_________ __________ or company, __________________________ to win __________ .If the case is proven (on the balance of probabilities,meaning that one is more sure thannot), the defendant normally pays the plaintiff____________ (money).

  10. Vocabulary practice II – Answer key Criminal law vs Civil law One category is the criminal law – the law dealing with crime. A case is calleda prosecution. The case is instituted by the prosecutor, who takes over the casefrom the police who have already decided to charge the defendant (or accused)with specified crimes. The civil law is much more wide-ranging. The civil lawincludes the law of contract and family law or intellectual property. In a civilcase, the plaintiff, normally a private individual or company, brings an action to win compensation.If the case is proven (on the balance of probabilities,meaning that one is more sure than not), the defendant normally pays theplaintiff damages (money).

  11. Vocabulary practice III Find the defined terms. _______________ = the punishment given to a person convicted of a crime, ordered by a judge and based on a verdict. _______________ = the final decision by a court in a lawsuit, criminal prosecution or appeal from a lower court's decision. _______________ = the result of a criminal trial in which the defendant has been found guilty of a crime. _______________ = a common term for a legal action by one person or entity against another person or entity, to be decided in a court of law. _______________ = a verdict (a judgment in a criminal case) of not guilty. _______________ = the decision of a jury after a trial, which must be accepted by the trial judge to be final. _______________ = commitment to a prison

  12. Vocabulary practice III – Answer key SENTENCE = the punishment given to a person convicted of a crime, ordered by a judge and based on a verdict. JUDGMENT = the final decision by a court in a lawsuit, criminal prosecution or appeal from a lower court's decision. CONVICTION = the result of a criminal trial in which the defendant has been found guilty of a crime. LAWSUIT = a common term for a legal action by one person or entity against another person or entity, to be decided in a court of law. ACQUITTAL = a verdict (a judgment in a criminal case) of not guilty. VERDICT = the decision of a jury after a trial, which must be accepted by the trial judge to be final. IMPRISONMENT = commitment to a prison.

  13. CIVIL PROCEDURE Civil claims arise when an individual or business believes thattheir rights have been infringed in some way. Main areas of civil law: • contract law • tort law • family law • employment law - company law

  14. Starting a court case 1 following a ‘pre-action’ protocol – a letter to another party explaining how the claim arises, details of injury etc.; defendant replies within 3 months – admits or denies liability 2 choosing a court 3 issuing a claim (filling in a claim form, paying the fee for a claim) 4 defending a claim – defendant receives the claim form and a) admits the claim and pays the full amount b) defendant disputes the claim and defends it c) ifdefendantdoesnot do a) or b) claimant asks the court to make an order in default - the defendant must pay the money and costs claimed 5 allocation of cases – if the claim is defended the court allocates the case to the most suitable ‘track’

  15. Allocation of cases 1. The small claims track - used for disputes under £5,000, except for personal injury cases and housing cases where the limit is usually £1,000 2. The fast track - used for straightforward disputes of £5,000 to £15,000 3. The multi-track - for cases over £15,000 or for complex cases under this amount

  16. CIVIL COURTS IN ENGLAND AND WALES Supreme Court ofthe UK Court ofAppeal (Civil Division) High Court County Court

  17. Which court to use? I The County Court and the High Court (The High Court and County Courts Jurisdiction Order 1991) The County Court – for cases where the claim is for £ 15,000 or less; personal injury cases for less than £ 50,000 The High Court – defamation actions The County Court or High Court – for claims larger then £ 15,000 II Appelate Courts Divisional Courts (each division of the High Court has divisional courts – The Queen’s Bench Divisional Court; Chancery Divisional Court; Family Divisional Court)– hear appeals from inferior courts and tribunals) Court of Appeal (Civil Division)- appeals from the 3 divisions of the High Court, The County Court for multi-track cases, some tribunals) – permission to appeal (granted where an appeal would have a real prospect of success) Supreme Court of the UK – final court of appeal – appeals from the Court of Appeal, the Divisional Courts

  18. The Civil Procedure Rules 26th April 1999 brought into effect simplify the procedure and cut the expenses, accelerates the procedure judges have more control over proceedings than previously (fix timetables and make sure that the parties do not drag out a case unnecessary; active case management etc.) – issues in cases identified more quickly – more cases settled without the need for trial encourage the use of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) changed the vocabulary used in court cases (eg. the claimant instead of the plaintiff; claim form instead of writ or summons etc.)

  19. The Civil Procedure Rules • changed the vocabulary used in court cases (claimant instead of plaintiff; claim form instead of writ or summons) OVERRIDING OBJECTIVE - to enable the court to deal with cases justly • ensure that the parties are on an equal footing • deal with the cases in a way which is proportionate to: - the amount involved - the importance of the case - the complexity of the issues in the case • save expenses • ensure that the case is dealt with quickly and fairly • judges have more control over proceedings (set timetables and make sure that the parties do not drag out a case) • encourage the use of alternative dispute resolution (ADR)

  20. A Day in a Civil Court Civil court – a county court judge (wigged and gowned, wearing a purple sash);a clark; parties to the dispute; solicitors and barristers

  21. Essential vocabulary to defend a case/claim # to pursue a case = osporiti tužbu/zahtjev, odgovoriti na tužbu to issue a claim = podnijeti tužbeni zahtjev (u građanskom postupku) to admit a claim = prihvatiti zahtjev dispute a claim = osporiti zahtjev a claim form = formular tužbenog zahtjeva a counter claim = protutužba to appeal against = žaliti se to allocate the case = dodijeliti slučaj to redress a grievance = povoljno riješiti žalbu parties to the dispute = stranke u sporu a claim arises from = zahtjev/tužba proizlazi iz to infringe rights = povrijediti/kršiti pravo an appelate court = prizivni sud

  22. Vocabulary practiceFind in the text the English equivalents for the following Croatian legal terms. 1 povoljno riješiti žalbu/tužbu 2 stranke u sporu 3 slučaj proizlazi iz 4 sudski poziv 5 iznos dosuđen stranci na prethodnom suđenju koji je stranka dužna platiti 6 ispitivati / istraživati činjenice 7 dugovi 8 unakrsno ispitivanje svjedoka 9 relevantan svjedok 10 odmjeriti krivnju / odštetu 11 priznanje 12 žaliti se na odluku prizivnom sudu

  23. Vocabulary practice – Answer key 1 to redress a grievance 2 parties TO the dispute 3 a case arises from 4 judgement summons 5 the amount judged by the court on a previous occasion to be due 6 to probe for the facts 7 arrears 8 cross-questioning the witness 9 pertinent witness 10 to apportion blame / damages 11admission 12 to make an appeal against a decision to the appeal court