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Chapter 3. Conception, Prenatal Development, and Birth. In this chapter. . . What happens during the first nine months of development? Will the baby be normal? What should parents do during pregnancy to optimize the baby’s health? What happens during the birth process? .

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chapter 3
Chapter 3

Conception, Prenatal Development, and Birth

in this chapter
In this chapter. . .

What happens during the first nine months of development?

Will the baby be normal?

What should parents do during pregnancy to optimize the baby’s health?

What happens during the birth process?

stages of prenatal development
Stages of Prenatal Development
  • Process by which sperm and ovum combine to create a single cell—zygote
  • What happens when a woman ovulates?
  • Where is sperm produced?
  • How does sperm get to the ovum for fertilization?
  • When and where does fertilization take place?
multiple births
Multiple Births
  • Monozygotic (MZ)
    • One egg – One sperm
    • Identical Twins
    • Share 100% of genes
  • Dizygotic(DZ)
    • Two eggs – Two sperm
    • More common
    • Fraternal Twins
    • Share 50% of genes – just like non-twin siblings
  • Semi-identical
  • Superfetation--Women Got Pregnant Twice - YouTube
conception and the zygote the first two weeks
Conception and the Zygote:The First Two Weeks
  • Gestation – period from conception to birth
  • Within hours of conception, the sperm and egg create a zygote.

–End of first week differentiation of cells begins.

–During second week implantation occurs.

embryonic stage 2 8 weeks
Embryonic Stage: 2-8 weeks
  • Specialized layers of cells
  • Organs and major body systems develop rapidly
    • Respiratory
    • Digestive
    • Nervous
  • 3 ½ weeks—brain begins to form
  • Neurogenesis begins
  • Risk of spontaneous abortion
fetal stage 8 weeks to birth
Fetal Stage: 8 weeks to Birth
  • Organs, muscles, nervous system more organized, connected
  • Size increases
  • Cephalocaudal/
  • ProximodistalPrinciples
  • Finishing touches – toenails, eyelids
  • Appearance of bone
  • Fetal Development Pictures Slideshow: Photos Month-by-Month by WebMD
prenatal development ultrasound imaging
Prenatal Development: Ultrasound Imaging
chromosomal abnormalities
Chromosomal Abnormalities
  • Typically occur because of errors in cell division
  • Result is extra or missing chromosome
dominant recessive inheritance
Dominant/Recessive Inheritance
  • Alleles
  • Every person inherits a pair of alleles for a particular characteristic from each parent
  • What does it mean to be homozygous for a trait?
  • Heterozygous?
  • When person inherits contradictory alleles for a trait, which will be expressed, dominant or recessive?
  • When person inherits 2 recessive alleles what will be expressed?
genetic abnormalities
Defects transmitted by dominant or recessive inheritance

Usually normal genes are dominant over genes carrying abnormal traits

Sometimes gene for an abnormal trait is dominant

Examples—Huntington’s Disease, achondroplasia (form of dwarfism)

Recessive defects are expressed only if a child receives the same recessive abnormal gene from each parent

Examples—sickle-cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease

Genetic Abnormalities

Dominant Inheritance of a Disease--e.g., Huntington’s disease (brain disorder that affects ability to talk, think, move), achondroplasia (a form of dwarfism)


Recessive Inheritance of a Disease—e.g., Tay-Sachs disease (lack of enzyme to break down fatty waste in brain cells resulting in loss of motor and mental functions and eventually death), sickle cell anemia (abnormal hemoglobin that result in sickle shaped red blood cells that block small blood vessels resulting in anemia, jaundice, gallstones, pain, lung tissue damage, etc.)

prenatal assessment
Prenatal Assessment
  • Amniocentesis
  • Chorionic villi
  • False positives
  • False negatives
stages of childbirth
Stages of Childbirth
  • First stage—usually the longest—12 hours or more, especially for first child
  • What happens during the first stage of childbirth?
second stage of labor
Second Stage of Labor
  • Usually lasts up to one hour
  • What is happening with the contractions?
  • Where is the baby moving to?
  • When does the second stage end?
  • What happens if this stage goes on for too long?
second stage of labor1
Second Stage of Labor
third stage of labor
Third Stage of Labor
  • What is delivered during the third stage of labor?
  • 5 to about 30 minutes
methods of delivery
Methods of Delivery
  • Vaginal
  • Cesarean delivery
  • Cesarean birth rates in U.S. are among highest in world
  • When are cesarean births more likely to occur?
  • Live birth: C-section surgery | Video | BabyCenter
birth complications
Birth Complications
  • Breech
  • Cross-wise position
  • Anoxia
    • Position of baby
    • Cord is pinched, twisted
    • Placental abruption
    • Placenta previa
  • Google Image Result for
newborns at risk
Newborns at Risk
  • Preterm
  • Low birth weight
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)
  • Premature baby's first few minutes - NICU Team - YouTube
medical and behavioral assessment
Medical and Behavioral Assessment
  • Apgar Scale: 5 subtests, assessed 1 minute after and 5 minutes after delivery
  • Newborn is rated 0, 1, or 2 on each measure:
    • A--
    • P--
    • G--
    • A--
    • R--
the newborn baby
The Newborn Baby
  • What is the neonatal period?
  • Newborn—neonate—about 20 inches long, 71/2 lbs.
  • Are boys or girls bigger?
  • Are first borns or later borns bigger?
  • Some features:
    • Large head (1/4 the body length)
    • Receding chin—why?
    • Head may be misshapen—why?
    • Why do babies have “soft spots” on their heads? What are they called?
    • Pinkish cast—thin skin covering capillaries where blood flows
    • What is the fuzzy prenatal hair that newborns have on their bodies called?
    • What is the oily protection that babies are covered with when they are born? What purpose does it serve?