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Ancient Egypt

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  1. Ancient Egypt

  2. Ancient Egypt • 3100 BCE – Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by Narmer (aka Menes)- capital placed at Memphis • 2900 BCE – Hieroglyphics develop (Egyptian writing) • 2700 BCE – 365 solar calendar develops – June 21 is beginning of year - greatest Egyptian scientific achievement • 2686-2613 BCE – Pharaoh Djoser orders first pyramid built by Imhotep (step pyramid) • 2585 – 2470 BCE – Khufu, Khafre (also builds Sphinx) and Menkaure order the 3 pyramids of Giza built.

  3. Ancient Egypt • 2100 BCE – capital is moved to Thebes by the priesthood under Mentuhotep II of the 11th Dynasty • 1674 BCE – Egyptian former capital of Memphis falls to Hyksos; Hyksos conquer Lower Egypt and rule it for the next 100 years • 1567 - 1550 BCE – Ahmose I conquers the Hyksos and reunites Upper and Lower Egypt to begins 18th Dynasty

  4. Ancient Egypt • 1478 – 1458 BCE – Hatshepsut rules as first female pharaoh with her son Thutmoses III • 1479 – 1425 BCE – Thutmoses III builds the largest Egyptian Empire conquering Israel, Mesopotamia and Nubia • 1352 – 1336 BCE – Amenhotep IV changes his name to Akhenaten; changes Egyptian religion to monotheism; moves capital from Thebes to Akhetaton (Amarna) • 1336 – 1327 BCE – Tutankhamen restores capital to Thebes; restores old religion; dies shortly after

  5. Ancient Egypt • 1299 BCE – Rameses II fights Hittites at Battle of Kadesh which ended in the world’s first peace treaty. Rameses II goes on to build many temples, buildings and even cities during his reign. • 1224 – 1165 BCE – Rameses III repulses the invasion of the Indo-European Sea People; he is considered the last of the great Egyptian pharaohs

  6. Ancient Egypt • Egyptian History can be broken down in 3 major periods: • Old Kingdom – 2686 – 2181 BCE • Middle Kingdom – 2040 – 1700 BCE • New Kingdom – 1550 – 1070 BCE most successful period

  7. Ancient Egypt • Ancient Egyptians were Polytheistic • Major Egyptian Gods: • Ra (later named Amon-Ra or Amon-Re) – sun god; ruler of the gods • Osiris – god of underworld, resurrection, and plants • Isis – goddess of fertility , wife/sister of Osiris • Amen – god of creation; later combined with Ra to create one leading deity • Anubis – god of the dead • Set- god of chaos • Horus – protector of the pharaoh, a sky god • Bastet – Egyptian cat god, protector of souls • The ka was the Egyptian word for the life force or soul

  8. Ancient Egypt – Art Characteristics • Strong sense of order • All figures must stand on horizontal lines • Egyptian canon of proportionsis clearly defined • Aim at clarity rather than illusion • Head, hips, legs and feet always in profile • Eyes, shoulders and upper torso seen from front • Use of Hierarchic scale • Higher ranking officials were depicted within the rules more strictly seeming almost rigid • Frozen, timeless quality to Egyptian Art

  9. Ancient Egypt • Canon of Proportions – a set of rules governing the proportions of the human body as they must be rendered by the artist • Hierarchic Scale – use of relative size to indicate the comparative importance of depicted objects or people

  10. Pre-Dynastic Egypt

  11. Ancient Egypt - Art • Palette of King Narmer • 3100 BCE • Memphis, Egypt • Relief Sculpture • This work shows Pharaoh Narmer (Menes) conquering lower Egypt and uniting it with Upper Egypt

  12. Ancient Egypt – Art

  13. Tomb of Perneb (mastaba) ca. 2,350-2,323 B.C.E. Saqqara, Egypt Architecture approximately 16 ft. high Simplest form of Egyptian noble tomb

  14. Ancient Egypt - Art • Step Pyramid of Pharaoh Djoser • 2681-2662 BCE • Saqqara, Egypt • Architecture • Artist: Imhotep • First pyramid structure built • First known artist –Imhotep as architect • Oldest stone structure ever built

  15. Old Kingdom Art

  16. Red Pyramid of Sneferu

  17. Sneferu’s Bent and Collapsed Pyramids

  18. Ancient Egypt - Art • Pyramids of Giza • 2530 – 2470 BCE • Giza, Egypt • Architecture • Pyramid of Khufu on right; Pyramid of Khafre in center; Pyramid of Menkaure on left in front • Served as tombs like all pyramids • Face exactly north, south, east and west and are aligned to the stars in Orion’s belt

  19. Ancient Egypt - Art

  20. Ancient Egypt - Art • Great Pyramid of Giza • 2530 BCE • Giza, Egypt • Architecture • The only surviving member of the Seven Wonders of the World • The largest stone structure ever built • 480 ft tall – 100,000 workers – 23 years to build

  21. Ancient Egypt - Art • The Great Sphinx • 2570 – 2544 BCE • Giza, Egypt • World’s largest Sculpture • In the image of Khafre • Size was meant to impress visitors and show pharaoh’s power

  22. Khafre ca. 2,520-2,494 B.C.E. Giza, Egypt Sculpture diorite approximately 66 in. high Seated pharaoh – one of 3 accepted poses

  23. Ancient Egypt - Art • Menkaure (Mycerinus) and Queen Khamerernebty • 2470 BCE • Giza, Egypt • Sculpture • King slightly taller and much more rigid than wife • Canon of proportions followed • Queen is allowed to be less rigid – can even place her hand around his waist • Weight equally distributed on both feet • Note they are not 100% free standing

  24. Old Kingdom Art • Rahotep and Princess Nofret • C. 2620 BCE • Sculpture • Meidum, Egypt • Possibly Sneferu’s daughter • In Egyptian canon of colors, size, pose

  25. Seated Scribe ca. 2,450-2,350 B.C.E. Saqqara, Egypt Sculpture painted limestone approximately 21 in. high Note that he is not perfect and is in fact a bit flabby

  26. Ancient Egypt - Art • Ka-Aper • 2500 BCE • Saqqara, Egypt • Sculpture • Proves Egyptians could create realistic portrayals of people when not of the nobility or royalty • Heavy set, older

  27. Ancient Egypt - Art • Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt • 2500 – 2400 BCE • Saqqara, Egypt • Relief Sculpture • Typical Egyptian pose • Ti is larger than servants – watching and not participating in the hunt • Hippos were symbols of the god of chaos - Set in Egypt and looked upon unfavorably

  28. Middle Kingdom

  29. Rock cut Tombs Beni Hasan 3-5 ca. 1950-1900 B.C.E. Beni Hasan, Egypt Architecture These tombs are cut directly into the cliff

  30. Tomb of Meketre ca. 1,985 B.C.E. Thebes, Egypt Architecture Many non-royal tombs have been discovered with artifacts

  31. Riverboat from tomb of Meketre, Thebes, Egypt

  32. Granary from tomb of Meketre, Thebes, Egypt

  33. Statuette of an offering bearer from tomb of Meketre, Thebes, Egypt

  34. Hippopotamus 1991-1783 B.C.E. Thebes, Egypt Sculpture/Craftwork 7 7/8 in. long Egyptians loved to use colored faience Faience -glazed earthenware decorated with opaque colors

  35. New Kingdom

  36. Ancient Egypt - Art • Mausoleum of Queen Hatshepsut • 1478 - 1458 BCE • Thebes, Egypt • Architecture • Hatshepsut became the first female pharaoh • First important historical female • Tomb built on terraces – this was a temple – the body not placed here

  37. Hatshepsutwith offering jars ca. 1,473-1,458 B.C.E. Deir el-Bahri, Egypt Sculpture 8 ft. 6 in. high Although female, she appears male in all public functions and in monuments and sculpture

  38. Ancient Egypt - Art • The Weighing of the Heart and The Judgement of Osiris • 1285 BCE • Thebes, Egypt • Illuminated Manuscript • Part of the Book of the Dead – Ancient Egypt’s Holy Book

  39. Ancient Egypt - Art • Temple of Rameses II • 1260 BCE • Abu Simbel (Answan), Egypt • Architectur/Relief Sculpture • Greatest example of all temples Rameses II built • Placed his name on over 50% of all New Kingdom monuments • Egyptian standards unchanged despite passage of centuries

  40. Temple of Amen-Re (Amon-Ra) ca. 15th century B.C.E. Karnak, Egypt Architecture World’s largest religious structure

  41. Ancient Egypt - Art • Nobleman Hunting in the Marshes • 1400 BCE • Thebes, Egypt • Painting • From Tomb of Nebamun • Focus on conveying the message of what is going on not in realism • Similar to Ti relief from 1100 years earlier