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Segmented Assimilation & Latino Children’s Health Behavior. Jinsook Kim, PhD, Northern Illinois University, Anne R. Pebley, PhD, University of California Los Angeles, Noreen Goldman, DSc, Princeton University November 07 , 2006 APHA 134th Annual Meeting, Boston, MA .

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segmented assimilation latino children s health behavior

Segmented Assimilation & Latino Children’s Health Behavior

Jinsook Kim, PhD, Northern Illinois University,

Anne R. Pebley, PhD, University of California Los Angeles, Noreen Goldman, DSc, Princeton University

November 07, 2006

APHA 134th Annual Meeting, Boston, MA

significance of the issue
Significance of the Issue
  • Growing proportions of second generation immigrant children in US (20% of population ages<18 in 2000)
  • Potentially significant impacts of immigrant children’s health behavior on the future US health profile
  • Criticism on “acculturation” frameworks
  • Limitations of acculturation frameworks for immigrant children
segmented assimilation theory
Segmented Assimilation Theory
  • Alternative model of immigrant adaptation
  • Attention to immigrant profile changes & divergent adaptation outcomes
  • Emphases on the importance of social contexts in adaptation of racial/ethnic minority immigrants
    • Decreased mobility chances for less-educated/low-skilled immigrants
    • Less favorable reception than for European immigrants of early 1900s
segmented assimilation theory4
Segmented Assimilation Theory

Three Possible Adaptation Patterns

  • Straight-line upward mobility with time  acculturation and integration into the middle class
  • Economic advancement with continued attachment to ethnic culture and group identity
  • Downward mobility with integration into the underclass: less-educated racial/ethnic minority immigrants
segmented assimilation theory5
Segmented Assimilation Theory

Assumptions

  • Minority immigrants’ higher likelihood of living in disadvantaged neighborhoods due to residential segregation in US
  • Higher prevalence of risky behaviors in poor neighborhoods due to adversarial subculture of the neighborhoods and lower aspiration
specific aim s
Specific Aims
  • Test two assumptions of the segmented assimilation theory using empirical data
  • Examine how neighborhood characteristics are associated with health behavior of Latino immigrant children and youths
  • Evaluate differentials in health behaviors among 1st, 2nd, and 3rd/higher generation Latino immigrant children and youths
significance of the study
Significance of the Study
  • Apply the segmented assimilation framework to examine health behavioral aspects of immigrant adaptation
  • Test main assumptions of the segmented assimilation theory
  • Use multilevel modeling to account for interdependence of observations within clusters and to examine cross-level interactions
hypotheses
Hypotheses
  • Residential Segregation Hypothesis:

Latino immigrant families and African American families are more likely to live in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods compared to Whites with similar family characteristics.

hypotheses9
Hypotheses
  • Neighborhood Effect Hypotheses
    • Lifetime smoking, drug use, and having sex among children and youths in poor neighborhoods are more prevalent than in non-poor neighborhoods.
    • Lifetime drinking among children in poor neighborhoods is less prevalent than in non-poor neighborhoods.
hypotheses10
Hypotheses
  • Behavioral Assimilation Hypothesis:
    • The prevalence of risky health behaviors among US-born Latino children is similar to that of African American counterparts, controlling for demographic and family characteristics.
    • The prevalence of risky health behaviors are highest among 3rd/higher generation Latino children, lowest among first generation, and second generation in between, controlling for demographic and family characteristics.
data sources
Data Sources

Wave I 2000-2001 Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) data

  • Part of a longitudinal study of a representative sample of Los Angeles County individuals
  • Information on social background, household socioeconomic status, family life, neighborhood life, health status, etc.
  • Multi-stage sampling design:

65 census tracts from 3 poverty strata (non-poor, poor, very poor)

  • Blocks sampled & dwelling units listed
  • Households sampled (40 to 50 households per tract interviewed)
data sources cont d
Data Sources (cont’d)
  • In households with children, one child (age<18) chosen at random  a sibling selected at random
  • Sampled children age 9 or older interviewed about school, behavior, and family relations
  • Children aged 12-17 answered a full set of behavioral questions including sexual behavior & drug use
  • Additional information about a child provided by the child’s primary care giver
  • Young adult sample (age 18 to 20) with smoking information
data sources cont d13
Data Sources (cont’d)

Neighborhood-level information from the 2000 Census tract-level data

  • linked to individuals and families of the L.A.FANS data
  • neighborhood quality information, including SES, residential mobility, and ethnic composition
slide14

Neighborhood

Neighborhood

Family

Family…

Family

Family…

A

A

A

B

B

B

C…

C…

C…

Data Structure

A B…

Individuals

variables
Variables

For Residential SegregationHypothesis

  • Outcome variables
    • Living in poor (poor or very poor) neighborhood or not (binary)
    • Median household income of the tract (continuous)
  • Predictor variable: Ethnicity-generation variable with 5 categories (White, African American, 3rd or higher generation Latino, 2nd generation Latino, 1st generation Latino)
  • Control variables: family characteristics
variables16
Variables

For Neighborhood EffectHypothesis

  • Outcome variables
    • Ever smoking
    • Ever drinking
    • Ever using drugs
    • Ever having sex
  • Predictor variable
    • Neighborhood poverty in 3 categories (non-poor, poor, very poor)
    • Median household income of the tract
variables17
Variables

For Behavioral Assimilation Hypothesis

  • Outcome variables
    • Ever smoking
    • Ever drinking
    • Ever using drugs
    • Ever having sex
  • Predictor variable: Ethnicity-generation variable with 5 categories (White, African American, 3rd or higher generation Latino, 2nd generation Latino, 1st generation Latino)
  • Control variables: Individual & family characteristics
analysis
Analysis

Residential Segregation Hypothesis

Two-level logistic regression and linear regression, adjusting for clustering of individuals in households

N= f (ethnicity-generation group, X)

  • N (neighborhood quality): living in poor (i.e., poor or very poor) neighborhood & median household income
  • X (family characteristics): family SES (earning, assets, household head’s education level), age of household head, & number of household members
analysis19
Analysis

Neighborhood EffectHypothesis

  • Chi-square tests of equal distribution of each health behavior outcome across neighborhoods (non-poor, poor, & very poor)
  • Simple logistic regression with each neighborhood quality outcome (poverty category & median household income) as a predictor and one of 4 health behaviors as an outcome
analysis20
Analysis

Behavioral Assimilation Hypothesis

Three-level logistic regression, adjusting for clustering of individuals in households and neighborhoods

HB= f (ethnicity-generation group, X)

  • HB (health behavior): ever smoking, ever drinking, ever using drugs, ever having sex
  • X (individual & family characteristics): age and gender of an individual, household head’s education level
results
Results

Health Behaviors (%) by Race/ethnicity-generation

* Significant (p<0.05) based on a Chi square test of equal distribution across race/ethnicity-generation groups.

results odds ratio of living in poor neighborhoods a
ResultsOdds Ratio of Living in Poor Neighborhoodsa

a Living in a census tract with the top 40% of poverty distribution (poor or very poor)

b Controlled for household SES (asset, earning, household head’s education level), family size, and household head’s age, and adjusted for clustering of individuals in household

results coefficients of median household income
ResultsCoefficients of Median Household Income

a Controlled for household SES (asset, earning, household head’s education level), family size, and household head’s age, and adjusted for clustering of individuals in household

results27
Results

Health Behaviors (%) by Neighborhood Poverty

a census tracts with the bottom 60% of poverty distribution

b census tracts with poverty distribution between 10 and 40%

c census tracts with the top 10% of poverty distribution

results28
Results

Results (Odds Ratioa) of Multivariate Multilevel Models

a Controlled for age, gender, and household head’s education level, and adjusted for clustering of individuals in households and neighborhoods

* p<0.05

key findings
Key Findings
  • Assumptions of the segmented assimilation theory partially supported
    • Residential segregation hypothesis supported
    • Neighborhood effect hypothesis partially supported (sexual behavior)
  • Behavioral assimilation hypothesis supported: more risky behaviors with generational increment among Latino children
  • No inter-level interaction