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A 3-Tiered System of Support: Home, School & Community

A 3-Tiered System of Support: Home, School & Community

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A 3-Tiered System of Support: Home, School & Community

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  1. A 3-Tiered System of Support:Home, School & Community Center for SW-PBS College of Education University of Missouri

  2. What do we want for kids? • Success for all youth at, home, school and community: academic/social/emotional • Safe, effective, supportive learning environments • System-wide approaches that focus on prevention of academic/social/emotional difficulty and failure

  3. Challenges • Fragmented efforts on behalf of youth • Lack of effective schoolwide responses for kids who have trouble in schools • Lack of early interventions for students at-risk of developing Mental Health problems • Lack of data-based decision making • Interventions that are not implemented correctly or not implemented across settings

  4. So, what should we do to help our kids be successful? • Work together to develop common expectations. • Work together to teach our children how to meet the expectations. • Work together to recognize our children who work to meet the expectations. • Work together to develop supportive responses for our children who are not meeting the expectations.

  5. The Three-Tiered Model Academic and Behavior Examples

  6. Academic RtI • All students receive instruction in the core reading curriculum, which is evidence-based. Academic goals are communicated to parents. Fidelity checks ensure the curriculum is implemented with fidelity. The teacher provides additional instruction within the classroom for students who need additional assistance. All students are screened 3x per year.

  7. Students not at benchmark on the screening receive additional small group instruction for 30 minutes 3-5 times per week. The instruction provided is a research-based, targeted skills intervention. Fidelity checks are made. Parents also provide additional instruction with materials provided by the school. Students continue to receive core reading instruction in the classroom. Students at this level of support are progress monitored every 2 weeks. Academic RtI

  8. Student progress monitoring data meets data decision rule for intensive support. The research-based intervention is intensive and possibly a customized standard protocol intervention. Instruction is delivered in smaller groups or individually, 60 minutes per day, 5 days per week. Parents are provided materials to provide additional practice for the student at home. Progress monitoring occurs weekly. Academic RtI

  9. Behavior RtI (SW-PBS) • Parents, Community Members and school staff work together to develop Schoolwide Expectations and rules and classroom rules. Expectations and rules are taught to all 500 students in the school. 52 students have 2 or more office discipline referrals; the most frequent social behavioral error is difficulty with following directions. Each teacher reviews the lesson for following directions for a specified period of time.

  10. Behavior RtI (SW-PBS) • Six students continue to experience difficulty following directions and meet the data decision rule for a small group intervention. The six students are placed in a research-based, small group intervention for 4 to 6 weeks. Community MH may provide direction for Social Skill Groups. Parents provide increased positive feedback to recognize their child’s efforts. Fidelity checks are made. Students continue to receive social behavior instruction provided to all students. Progress monitoring data is collected and analyzed at least every two weeks.

  11. Two students continue to experience difficulty following directions and meet data decision rules for more intensive, individualized support. A functional assessment is conducted by an Action Team that includes teachers, parent, and the student and behavior intervention plans are developed for these 2 students. Community Agencies are included in the process when students require more intensive support. Progress monitoring data is collected and analyzed at least weekly. Behavior RtI (SW-PBS)

  12. Activity Respond to the following: • We have included community agencies and parents in the process of developing our schoolwide behavior expectations? • If not, how could we involve community agencies and parents in this process? • We have included community agencies and parents in the process to provide support for our students who experience social/behavioral difficulty? • If not, how could we include community agencies and parents in this process?

  13. How do we change behavior? • Clarify (specify) the behavior that will be taught. • Teach what you want the child to do. • Recognize/reinforce the performance of the new behavior. • Consistently respond to errors (misbehaviors) by reteaching. • Evaluate the child’s performance of the behavior.

  14. Clarify the Goals or Outcomes for Behavior Expectations & Rules Sample

  15. Teach Expectations & Rules • Instruction • Identify the rule • Define the rule • Model the rule • Role Play • Practice the rule • Remind students of the rule throughout the day. • Practice, Practice, Practice Rules Lesson Plan Sample

  16. “You get what you recognize.” Use positive, specific feedback when students display the expected behavior to increase the likelihood students will display the desired behavior again in the future.

  17. How do we Recognize Appropriate Behavior? Effective recognition is …. • Directly related to rules and procedures • Clear and specific • Immediate • Private • Clean

  18. What should we Recognize? • Recognize students for following the rules you’ve identified for all students. • Recognize students for exhibiting specific rules they have difficulty following. A

  19. How do we correct the errors of Children with Challenging Behavior? • Quick • Quiet • Step away to give the child time to comply A

  20. Do all the children conform to the expectations that have been established?

  21. Why not? Most children with social or behavioral challenges have impairments that affect: • communication • social interaction • the ability to be flexible • the ability to tolerate frustration

  22. What Does NOT Work • Raising your voice • Sarcasm • Last wordism • Humiliation • Rigid body language • Coaxing • Having a tantrum of your own

  23. “These children do not choose to be explosive and noncompliant – any more than a child would choose to be blind – but they are delayed in the process of developing the skills that are needed to be flexible and to tolerate frustration or they have a great deal of difficulty applying these skills when they most need to.” • Greene, 2001, p. 13

  24. Communication How does a person communicate with another person? • 55% is accomplished through body language • 38% is accomplished through voice tone • 7% is accomplished through word choice

  25. So how do we communicate with children who have difficulty communicating?Deliver one message at a time. Use only essential words (nouns & verbs) Match body language, facial expression, vocal tone, and words. Use visual aids (pictures, universal symbols, etc.) A

  26. Mental Health/Community Support at the Universal Level Promoting healthy development of all students • Family involvement in school activities • Community outreach activities • Family support activities • School-wide events that support learning • Participate in PBIS Universal team planning • Development of community-based support networks

  27. What if kids don’t respond to our system of prevention? • Develop a Tier 2 System of Intervention • Develop a system to identify kids early • Develop a system to collect a standard set of information you will need to identify the function of a student’s behavior • Develop 2 or 3 small group interventions that can be matched to the functions of misbehavior • Develop a system to regularly check the kid’s response to the intervention

  28. Mental Health/Community Support :Examples at the Tier 2 Level • Assist with individual or group interventions • Family outreach and support • Linkages with community resources • Access to clinical services for students, families • Social support needs of students, families, and teachers

  29. What if kids don’t respond to our Tier 2 System of Intervention? • Collect information about the student that will identify the misbehavior and the conditions that are present when the behavior occurs. • This process is called Functional Behavior Assessment. • Develop an individual Behavior Intervention Plan based on the information collected.

  30. FBA Definition • Functional behavioral assessment is a problem-solving process for identifying the events that reliably predict and maintain problem behavior. • The primary objective of the FBA is to gather evidence to develop and support a hypothesisorsummary statementof the function of behaviorand to use this information to design the positive behavior support plan.

  31. GET ATTENTION SENSORY TANGIBLE (objects & activities) ESCAPE ATTENTION SENSORY TANGIBLE (objects & activities) What are the functions of behavior?

  32. FBA to BIP Process • Identify clear & measurable description of problem behaviors. • Provide summary statement that includes function (purpose) of behavior. • Use data (direct observation) to confirm summary statement • Develop behavior intervention plan based on summary statement • Contextually appropriate supports for accurate implementation

  33. Desired Replacement Behavior From FBA to BIP Maintaining Consequences Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Setting Events Maintaining Consequences Function Obtain or Avoid Acceptable Replacement Behavior Prevent Strategies to address setting events/antecedents to reduce likelihood of problem behavior Teach Strategies to teach short-term acceptable replacement & desired long-term replacement Reinforce Strategies to recognize the child for exhibiting the new behavior

  34. Effective Classroom Practices Classroom: • Expectations & Rules • Procedures & Routines • Strategies to Acknowledge Appropriate Behavior • Strategies to Respond to Inappropriate Behavior • Active Supervision • Multiple Opportunities to Respond • Activity Sequence & Offering Choice • Academic Success & Task Difficulty

  35. Desired Replacement Behavior Ask for help How do we link FBA Outcomes to the BIP? Maintaining Consequences Triggering Antecedents “Get out your math book.” Problem Behavior Refusing to get out his book Setting Events Prior failure with math Maintaining Consequences Sent to the office. Function Escape the task. Acceptable Replacement: Use Break Card • Prevent • Bill and a staff member will create a schedule of work activities for each day to allow him to preview work he will be assigned for the day. • Break the work into parts. • Create a folder with resources to help Bill complete tasks. Bill can initiate the use of the folder or his teacher can offer the folder if Bill does not start the task as assigned. Teach Teach Bill to use the break card Teach Bill how to use the resource folder. Teach Bill how to break problems into parts. Teach Bill how to ask for help. Reinforce After Bill completes 2 or 3 problems, check his work and provide positive feedback for his attempts to correctly complete the work. Bill will be able to earn points for initiating tasks and for completing tasks.

  36. FBA Myths & Facts FBA is only for students with disabilities… MYTH • FBA is a process for understanding behavior of all individuals across multiple settings

  37. FBA Myths & Facts A behavior specialist or school psychologist completes all the FBAs . . . MYTH • A sustainable system of individual behavior support should be built on a team-based foundation • The team must build relationships with staff and students and understand the daily challenges and successes experienced by the school

  38. How will we complete an FBA? • We will identify the people who will work together as the student’s team. • We will identify the primary challenges of the student (academic, social/behavioral and emotional.) • We will identify the conditions under which the challenges occur.

  39. How will we complete an FBA? • We will identify the people who will work together as the student’s team. • See the diagram on the next slide.

  40. Core Team Members · Administrator · Person with behavioral expertise · Person with academic expertise Action Team Members Action Team Members Action Team Members · · · Members of core Members of core Members of core team team team · · · Teacher(s) of Teacher(s) of Teacher(s) of identified student identified student identified student · · · Parent(s) Parent(s) Parent(s) · · · Significant others Significant others Tier 3 Student Support Teams Significant others Student - Ann Student - Sue Student - Bill

  41. Family Members’ Role • Family members are considered a primary informant. • Families should be encouraged to share what they know about their child’s: • Strengths • Challenges • Lifestyle Sample Strengths, Needs, Discovery Survey

  42. How will we complete an FBA? • We will identify the people who will work together as the student’s team. • We will identify the primary challenges of the student (academic, social/behavioral and emotional.) • We will identify the conditions under which the challenges occur.

  43. Defining Primary Challenges • Should be decided as a team • Clear • Measurable

  44. Clear & Measurable Description of Problem Behavior(s)Description of Problem Behavior(s) The descriptions must be • Clear – Description of specific student actions, not inferred traits; Observable, can be replicated by a stranger (Use precise language - action verbs) • Measurable – Report behaviors that have an observable beginning & end and measurable dimension(s) • Frequency, duration, intensity, latency

  45. Clear & Measurable Descriptionof Problem Behavior(s)Problem Behavior(s) • Is the behavior clear? • Example: The student hits, kicks and spits at children and adults. • Nonexample: The child is physically aggressive. • Is the behavior measurable? • Example: Child completes only 1 of 5 assignments. • Nonexample: Child completes very few assignments.

  46. Clear & Measurable Descriptionof Problem Behavior(s) Description of Problem Behavior(s) Of the following, which would you consider clear and measurable? • Susan is unmotivated. • LaShonda sits still when asked to get out her materials. • Rebecca’s clothes are very provocative and inappropriate for school. • Damien puts his pencil in his desk.

  47. Clear & Measurable Descriptionof Problem Behavior(s) Description of Problem Behavior(s) Clear and Measurable: Yes or No (No) Hyperactivity (Yes) initiates 5 different tasks within 2 minutes (Yes) leaves room at least 3 times during a 30 minute lesson (Yes)….

  48. Activity • Work with your team to complete the “Clear & Measurable Description of Behavior” Activity. Clear & Measurable Description Activity