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Multi-Tiered Systems of Support. Features of Effective Tier I Systems. Educational and Community Supports. Educational and Community Supports (ECS) is a research unit within the College of Education at the University of Oregon.

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multi tiered systems of support

Multi-Tiered Systems of Support

Features of Effective Tier I Systems

educational and community supports
Educational and Community Supports
  • Educational and Community Supports (ECS) is a research unit within the College of Education at the University of Oregon.
    • ECS focuses on the development and implementation of practices that result in positive, durable, and scientifically substantiated change in the lives of individuals.
    • Federal and state funded projects support research, teaching, dissemination, and technical assistance.
  • PBIS Applications is a series of educational tools created within ECS and related to the implementation of multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS).
    • The PBIS Application tools have been utilized in 25,000+ schools both domestically and internationally.
essential components of rti
Essential Components of RTI

Response to intervention (RTI) integrates assessment and intervention within a multi-level prevention system to maximize student achievement and reduce behavior problems.

--National Center on Response to Intervention

The intent of RTI is to improve outcomes for all students while providing immediate supplemental supports for students at risk for poor learning outcomes.

multi level prevention system
Multi-Level Prevention System

Tertiary—intensive, individualized

Secondary—targeted, small group

Universal—primary prevention

multi level prevention system1
Multi-Level Prevention System
  • Also known as Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS)
  • The triangle does not represent the overall RTI framework; it only represents one component, the multi-level prevention system.
  • This component represents three levels of prevention.
  • In an effective system, we would expect:
    • Primary Level = at least 80%
      • If less than 80%, consider focusing school improvement efforts on improving core instruction and curriculum.
    • Secondary Level = 10-15%
    • Tertiary Level = 1-5%
multi level prevention system2
Multi-Level Prevention System

Essential Question:

Is the student successful at this level of support?

Students themselves do not fit into a tier of supports; instead, their needs are addressed at the tiers provided.

Intensity is a two-way street. Improved student outcomes are the result of continually monitoring and modifying (as needed) instructional programs and methods.





universal screening
Universal Screening
  • The purpose of screening is to identify those students who are at risk for poor learning outcomes.
  • The focus is on all students, not just those students that teachers believe are at risk.
  • It is a brief, reliable, valid assessment used to identify which students may need additional assessments or additional instructional support.
progress monitoring
Progress Monitoring
  • Allows practitioners to answer critical questions:
    • Are students making progress at an acceptable rate?
      • Quantify student rates of improvement or responsiveness to instruction
    • Are students meeting short-term goals necessary for achieving long-term goals?
      • Identify students who are not making adequate progress
    • Does the instruction need to be adjusted or changed?
      • Evaluate instructional effectiveness.
data based decision making
Data-Based Decision Making
  • Utility and value:
  • Instruction
    • Who needs assistance?
    • What type of instruction or assistance is needed?
    • Is the duration and intensity sufficient?
  • Movement within the Multiple Levels
    • When are students moved to something more/less intensive?
    • Who is responding and/or not responding?
  • Disability Identification
    • When do you refer for special education evaluation?
    • How does this student compare to his/her peers?
    • What appropriate instruction received by the student?
logic for school wide pbis
Logic for School-wide PBIS
  • Schools face a set of difficult challenges today:
    • Multiple expectations (i.e., academic, social-emotional, safety)
    • Students arrive at school with widely differing understandings of what is socially acceptable.
    • Traditional “get touch” and “zero tolerance” approaches are insufficient.
  • Individual student interventions
    • Effective, but the need cannot be met
  • School-wide discipline systems
    • Establish a social culture within which both social and academic success is more likely
school wide pbis sw pbis
School-wide PBIS (SW-PBIS)
  • School-wide PBIS is:
    • A systems approach for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for a school to be an effective learning environment for all students.
  • Evidence-based features of SW-PBIS
    • Prevention
    • Define and teach positive social expectations
    • Acknowledge appropriate behavior
    • System of consequences for problem behavior
    • Continuous collection and use of data for decision-making
    • Continuum of intensive, individual intervention supports
    • Implementation of the systems that support effective practices
school wide pbis sw pbis1
School-wide PBIS (SW-PBIS)
  • Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is based on a problem-solving model and aims to prevent inappropriate behavior through teaching and reinforcing appropriate behaviors.
  • SWPBS refers to a systems change process for an entire school or district.
  • The underlying theme is teaching behavioral expectations in the same manner as any core curriculum subject.

(OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports, 2007).

rti and swpbis


  • The RTI framework provides a system for delivering instructional interventions of increasing intensity.
  • PBIS provides a similar school-wide model and the two can be combined to provide a school-wide academic and behavioral framework.
  • RTI:A and RTI:B
    • SWPBIS is the model for RTI:B




rti and swpbis1
  • Improved student outcomes in social competence and academic achievement.
  • Systems support staff behavior.
  • Practices support student behavior.
  • Data support decision making.





Response to Intervention

School-wide PBIS

multi tiered systems of support1
Multi-Tiered Systems of Support

Tertiary—intensive, individualized

Secondary—targeted, small group

  • Universal:
  • primary prevention
  • core instruction
  • all students
universal tier i systems of prevention
Universal (Tier I) Systems of Prevention
  • Primary Prevention Level
    • Focus = all students
    • Instruction = core curriculum and instructional practices that are evidence based and incorporate differentiated instruction
    • Setting= general environment
    • Assessments= screening, continuous progress monitoring, and outcome measures
clear goals and expected outcomes
Clear Goals and Expected Outcomes
  • Core Curriculum
    • Course of study deemed critical
    • Usually mandatory for all students of a school or a school system
appropriate instruction
Appropriate Instruction
  • Teach Behavioral Expectations
    • Transform broad, school-wide expectations into specific, observable behaviors.
  • Students are presented information on behavior expectations, including examples of appropriate and inappropriate behavior so that they clearly understand the concept.
  • Students are provide opportunities to practice appropriate behavior and build fluency.
  • Lessons take place in the settings where appropriate behavior should occur and are taught by the adults responsible for monitoring students.




feedback and encouragement
Feedback and Encouragement
  • Successful skill development requires providing students with feedback on their performance that is timely and understandable.
  • To improve task performance, it is necessary to know how well the task was completed.
  • Feedback and encouragement should follow the desired response immediately so there is a clear understanding of what is correct and should be repeated.
    • Contingent
    • Behaviorally specific
error correction
Error Correction
  • Errors are identified and corrected so students do not spend time practicing incorrect responses.
error correction1
Error Correction
  • Consequences Systems for Behavior involve:
    • Clear definitions for problem behaviors
    • Delineation of staff-managed vs. office-managed behaviors
    • Professional development plan for orientation of all staff to the discipline system
    • Incident referral form with relevant information (e.g., who, what, when, where, perceived why)
    • Data system to collect, organize, and summarize problem behavior events
  • Universal Screeningto determine students’ current level of performance
    • Collect information on all students at least twice a year
      • After the first 6 weeks of the new school year and 6 weeks after the return from winter break
    • Use data-decision rules for decision making

 Green zone = 0-1 ODRs

 Yellow zone = 2-5 ODRs

 Red zone = 6+ ODRs

Cumulative Mean ODRs Per Month for 325+ Elementary Schools 08-09

Cumulative Mean ODRs

Jennifer Frank, Kent McIntosh, Seth May

Cumulative Mean ODRs Per Month for 325+ Elementary Schools 08-09

Cumulative Mean ODRs

Jennifer Frank, Kent McIntosh, Seth May

  • Continuous Progress Monitoring to confirm risk status and monitor progress of at-risk students
    • Collection of data on a monthly, weekly, daily rate
    • Use of data for decision making
  • Outcome Measures or Summative Assessments
linking academic and behavior supports
Linking Academic and Behavior Supports
  • Effective school-wide and classroom-wide behavior support is linked to increased academic engagement.
  • Improved academic engagement with effective instruction is linked to improved academic outcomes.
  • The systems needed to implement effective academic supports and effective behavior supports are very similar:
    • Clear Goals and Expected Outcomes
    • Appropriate Instruction
    • Feedback and Encouragement
    • Error Correction
    • Monitoring