U.S. HISTORYCHAPTER 7 SECTION 3 and 4 SOCIETY AND POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE
Tweed Ring • Whoever controlled the city government also controlled the power and wealth that was generated by urban growth. • So… political machines sought to gain control of many city governments. • The most famous in the U.S. was the Tweed Ring, out of New York City.
Boss William Marcy Tweed • Who the Tweed Ring was named after. • He was a senator in New York and a leader of Tammany Hall, the local Democratic Party organization. • “As long as I count the votes, what are you going to do about it?”
Ulysses S. Grant1869 – 1877Republican • President during the worst of the “spoils system.” • Spoils System = Process by which the party in charge rewards its friends. • Credit Mobiler scandal • William W. Belknap
Salary Grab Act • 42nd Congress meeting from 1871-1873 • This Congress increased their pay by 50%, retroactive 2 years earlier. • Congress buried their “pay raise” in another bill.
Money formula • The more money raised and spent, the more likely a candidate would win.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES1877 – 1881REPUBLICAN • He announced new rules dealing with government appointments. • Jobs were to be given to qualified people, not just friends of those in power.
James Garfield1881Republican • He was the first candidate for President to break the million-dollar mark, brought about the “money formula” • Assassinated while in office. From this act Congress passed the Civil Service Act of 1883.
Charles J. Guiteau1841 - 1882 • Assassinated President Garfield in 1881. • Believed he was to be awarded a government job for writing a speech in support of Garfield.
Chester A. Arthur1881 -1885Republican • Vice President under Garfield. • Congress passed the Civil Service Act of1883 (Pendleton Act), that set up a commission that made examinations for entry into government service. • Important first step toward civil service reform.
Grover Cleveland1885 – 18891893 – 1897Democrat • While President, he extended the list of jobs covered by civil service. • He did cave to political party pressure and fired many office holding Republicans. • These jobs were then filled by Democrats.
Benjamin Harrison1889 – 1893Republican • Vetoed a logrolling bill that supported 500 projects and totaled almost $19 million. • Logrolling = a practice in which members of congress backed each others favorite projects. • Congress overrode his veto. • He was in office during the Battle of Wounded Knee.
Why was corruption so common in cities? • Cities rapid growth was the problem. • Immigrants and farmers were pouring into the cities looking for jobs and housing. • Businesses were looking for sites to produce and sell goods. • All demanded expanded services. • Such as transportation and sanitation.
What forms did the corruption take? • Corrupt politicians and judges • Corruption took place on the local and national level.
Briefly describe what happened in the Credit Mobilier Scandal. • Happened in 1872, when Grant was President. • Hired to build the Union Pacific Railroad. • Overcharged the railroad. • Lawmakers bought stock in the company, and then passed laws helping the company. • No public official went to jail.
Why was the senate called the “The Millionaires Club”? • By the 1880’s over half of the members of the U.S. Senate were millionaires.
What criticism was made of the Senate? • Some thought the Senate only represented the views of special interests. • Such as steel, lumber, and railroads. • Some Senators made sure that bills hostile to business never came to a vote.
List three ways in which politicians raised money. • They used their own money • Received many small donations • Went to business leaders for large donations
When did Congress first set-up rules for campaign contributions? • 1907, was when Congress first began to set up rules for campaign contributions.