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Chapter 7 Section 4 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 7 Section 4

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  1. Chapter 7 Section 4

  2. Agricultural Revolution • Iron plows replaced wooden = stronger • Harness for horses instead of oxen = faster • Lords turn wasteland into farmland • 3 field system • 1 field = grain • 1 field legumes (peas/beans) = protein • 1 field unplanted • Allowed the soil to replenish itself • 1000 – 1300 population almost triples

  3. The Revival of Trade & Travel • 1100s – feudal warfare & invasions decline • Merchant Companies – armed travel • Constantinople = trade center due to its location • Hanseatic League • Fought against pirate, thieves • Built lighthouses • Trained ship captains

  4. The Growth of Towns & Cities • Trade fairs closed due to weather • Merchants began to set up shop out castles & towns = cities • End of the 14 century - a few reached over 100,000 • Northern Italy & Flanders (N. France/Belguim) • Wool & Textiles • Leads to the decline of the Manor system

  5. Charter • Issued by the King or Lord • Set out the rights and privileges of the town • Merchants paid the lord $ • Anyone who lived in the town for 1 year & 1 = free

  6. A Commercial Revolution • Increased trade = more $, increase in banks • Capital - $ for investment • Partnerships • More $ to invest & less risk • Insurance • Credit • Bill of Exchange • Provide $ to a local bank & collect at a different bank

  7. Use of money weakened serfdom • Money to Lords instead of Labor • Tenant farmers • Rented land to farm • Church prevented Christians from loaning $ with interest • Jews were banned from other professions became money lenders (resentment)

  8. Middle Class – merchants, traders, & artisans • Guilds = associations linked to a certain trade/profession • Passed laws • Levied taxes • Town improvements, schools, & hospitals • Sometimes led to violence • Protect their own economic interests • Limited membership • Quality control, regulated hours of work & prices

  9. Guilds (Cont.) • Apprentice – age 7/8 • 7 years learning the trade • No $ but food & housing • Journeyman • Salaried worker • Sometimes frustrated they couldn’t make enough to start their own business

  10. Town & City Life • Protective wall • Second & Third story buildings to make room • Narrow Streets • Fire = constant threat • Church steeples could be seen for miles • No garbage collection • No sewer system • Perfect breading ground for disease