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Chapter 3. Basic Concepts of Anthropometry. Objective (from syllabus). To understand the relationship between human body size, shape and composition, and movement capability. Anthropometry. Definition: Dimensions and composition of the body

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Chapter 3

Basic Concepts of Anthropometry


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Objective (from syllabus)

  • To understand the relationship between human body size, shape and composition, and movement capability


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Anthropometry

  • Definition:

    • Dimensions and composition of the body

      • E.g. bone thickness & proportions, body fat %, lean body mass

    • See also kinanthropometry, which is the same thing but as applied to movement

  • Tools for measurement

    • All kinds of rulers, calipers and so on (and for lean body mass, some regression models to estimate body fat % based on a variety of assumptions)

      • Stadiometers, anthropometers, bicondylar calipers, skinfold calipers etc...

  • Height, body segment length, bone diameter, skinfold + fat width


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Anthropometry

  • Body size

    • It’s a field for the obsessive in terms of measuring protocols

  • Determination of body shape

    • A variety of proportions are measured

      • BMI (mass/ht2)

      • [(Sitting ht)/)(standing ht)] x 100

    • Certain proportions and shapes have been found to be associated with health or performance in certain activities, hence the interest

  • dimensionality

  • Limb length relative to torso

  • Bulk (fatness?)

  • Consider also cause and effect

  • Exceptions are always interesting though (e.g. Usain Bolt)


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Anthropometry

  • Tissues composing the body

    • Anthropometry is interested in estimating tissue proportion in the living

    • Most popular example is lean body mass & fat – gives the 2-component anthropometric model

      • The book cites errors even with underwater weighing, which is normally the gold standard for estimation of body fat %

      • Should bear in mind that with all estimation techniques, they work best for typical people

    • DEXA (dual x-ray absorpiometry): 3-component model – lean tissue divided into calcified tissue and other non-fat tissue

      • More accurate, but a lot more expensive than a set of calipers

    • General idea here...as opposed to losing weight, you should increase lean body mass (yes, increase...or at least not lose it).

  • So, abnormally fat, thin, or muscular people don’t get such accurate estimates

  • MRI, CAT scans even better but even more expensive

  • Implies increased training to build muscle mass...which in turn leads to fat loss


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Anthropometry

  • Somatotyping

    • The practice of classifying body types according to 3 dimensions (following the most popular Heath-Carter method)

      • Endomorphy (fatness)

      • Mesomorphy (muscularity & bone size)

      • Ectomorphy (thinness)

        • Replete with measurement errors, but still tends to be quite reliably associated with performance stereotypes

  • Bone girth relative to arm, leg girth, with fatness taken out

  • Skinfolds relative to height

  • Weight relative to height


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Anthropometry

  • Human variation

    • Emerges from a variety of causes

      • Age and activity are covered in the next chapters

    • In the musculoskeletal system

      • Nothing very interesting here (and open to misinterpretation)

    • In physical dimensions

      • As before, these are open to misinterpretation and stereotyping

      • Features that are more determined by genetics might (??) be more reasonably analyzed (e.g. jaw line in males generally larger)

  • “typical” make up of males and females is an example of this – see Caster Semenya controversy


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Chapter 4

Musculoskeletal changes across the life span


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Objective from syllabus

  • To summarize how concepts related to the musculoskeletal system and anthropometry are affected by growth and maturation


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Auxology and gerontology defined

  • Auxology – the science of growth

    • Is physical age proceeding apace with chronological age?

  • Gerontology – the science of aging

    • What does aging do to your body & mind?

  • Tools for measurement

    • Similar to anthropometry (after all, it’s still measurement)


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Changes across the lifespan

  • Physical growth, maturation, and aging

    • Embryological development

      • Ovum + spermatozoan  zygote (fertilized cell)

      • Zygote repeatedly divides and multiplies

      • Mesodermic development follows

        • Growth of organs, tissues, musculoskeletal system

      • Marked by hyperplastic growth (increase in # cells)

    • The postnatal years

      • Keep on growing, keep on maturing (a term implying genetically determined growth)

      • Exercise and aging – see ch. 12


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Changes across the lifespan

  • Age-related changes in the skeletal and articular systems

    • Two main phases

      • Foetal (hyperplastic)

      • Pubertal (hypertrophic)

  • Stages in development of bone

    • Bone grows initially from cartilage

    • Cells calcify and then remodeling proceeds via formation and erosion of cells to give the final shape

  • Growth of length and width of bone

    • Epiphyseal (growth) plate in which cartilage calcifies causes bone to lengthen

      • Continues until cartilage ceases to calcify

    • Change in thickness not limited by age (see ch. 5)


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Changes across the lifespan

  • Age-related changes in the skeletal and articular systems

    • Skeletal composition changes across the life span

      • Childhood: more collagen, thus more flexible bone

      • (Young) Adulthood: more salt, thus more strength

      • Old Adulthood: yet more salt, so more brittle, but also total mass of bone decreases

        • Increased porosity, decreased density, increased hardness, more brittle...not good news...


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Changes across the lifespan

  • Age-related changes in the skeletal and articular systems

    • Osteoporosis

      • In post-menopausal women, linked to estrogen depletion, so that bone absorption increases relative to it’s growth

      • To offset this, as bone mass peaks at 16 to 20, health experts recommend maximizing bone mass by that time

      • Osteoporosis in males is accelerating (lifestyle changes)

    • Bone failure in relation to bone development, age or activity

      • Type of fractures change with age and type of bone

      • Forearm fractures in childhood

      • Hip and wrist fractures in elderly women

    • Effect of various factors on range of motion

      • Decrease with age (how many can still suck their [own] toes)?

      • Decrease with arthritis


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Changes across the lifespan

  • Age-related changes in the muscular system

    • Umm...the more interesting stuff is in chapter 5 (hopefully)

  • Change in body dimensions across the life span

    • The “growth spurt” (peak height velocity) see. P. 49

    • In females early maturers ended up being no different to late maturers in height

    • In males, late maturers started off being shorter and ended up being significantly taller


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Changes across the lifespan

  • Age-related changes in the muscular system

    • Combining size measurements to provide information about shape


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Changes across the lifespan

  • Age-related changes in the muscular system

    • Secular trend in body dimensions


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Changes across the lifespan

  • Age-related changes in the muscular system

    • Growth rates of body segments

      • As expected following fig. 4.5, body parts grow at different rates

        • Limbs grow faster than trunk; legs grow faster than arms

    • Growth rates of body tissues

      • Brain size close to adult early on

      • Reproductive tissue grows rapidly through puberty


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Changes across the lifespan

  • Age-related changes in the muscular system

    • Sexual dimorphism in growth

      • Female growth spurt two years earlier than males’

        • Females often taller than males between 10-13 years

      • Fatness progresses differently for males and females


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Changes across the lifespan

  • Age-related changes in the muscular system

    • Somatotype changes during growth, maturation, and aging

      • 2 pubertal stages in males

        • First an increase in ectomorphy at around 11-15 yrs

        • Then an increase in mesomorphy between 15-24 yrs

  • Methods of determining age

    • Dentistry, bone growth, menarche and sexual maturity are the methods, but there’s nothing of particular interest here. Correct me if I’m wrong


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Chapter 5

Musculoskeletal adaptations to training


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Objective from syllabus

  • To summarize how concepts related to the musculoskeletal system and anthropometry adapt to physical activity


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Musculoskeletal adaptations to training

  • Effects of physical activity on bone

    • Generally, the more activity a bone sustains, the more it will adapt to be suited to that activity (gets thicker with prolonged use)

  • Effects of activity level on bone

    • Elite youth athletes and stress fractures – too much too soon

    • Loss of bone mass in space

    • Loss of bone mass at rest (bone needs activity to stay healthily dense)

    • Exercise generally increases bone mass (weight bearing – swimmers vs. others)


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Musculoskeletal adaptations to training

  • Effects of physical activity on bone

    • Effects of activity type on bone

      • Weight bearing activities best to add bone

        • Swimmers vs. wtlifters

        • Takes about 3-4 remodelling cycles to reach new steady state for bone tissue quality

        • Bone decreases in quality quicker than it increases, so activity should be sustained for maximum effect

    • Bone repair and physical activity

      • See fig. 5.1 – the implication is that bone (& other tissue) needs time to repair from any inactivity


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Musculoskeletal adaptations to training

  • Effects of physical activity on joint structure and ranges of motion

    • Synovial fluid, articular cartilage, and ligaments

      • Cartilage

        • Short bout of cyclical exercise results in thickening of cartilage

        • Thickens as a result of absorbing synovial fluid

        • Chronic exercise leads to long-term thickening

          • (except where compressive forces are excessive – e.g. downhill running)


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Musculoskeletal adaptations to training

  • Effects of physical activity on joint structure and ranges of motion

    • Synovial fluid, articular cartilage, and ligaments

      • Synovial fluid

        • Short run can increase synovial fluid from about .2-.5ml in the knee to three times as much

        • Becomes less viscous (hence more easily soaked up by cartilage)

        • Cartilage soaks it up, so it is probably still the cartilage doing the protection

      • Ligament

        • Exercise strengthens and stiffens ligaments (increase in both collagen synthesis & cross linking)


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Musculoskeletal adaptations to training

  • Effects of physical activity on joint structure and ranges of motion

    • Degenerative joint disease and exercise

      • Linked with obesity (physical activity?), ageing

      • Does jogging lead to osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease)?

      • Clinicians apparently say so, but the evidence is weak

        • Epidemiological studies imply the relationship exists only for those with previous ligament damage – so that the joint moves abnormally over a protracted period of time


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Musculoskeletal adaptations to training

  • Effects of physical activity on muscle-tendon units

    • Muscle size decreases with disuse

    • Flexibility

      • A function of the muscle-tendon unit, not the joint capsule or ligament

      • Joint laxity is a bad thing (stretched ligaments)

      • Highly joint and activity specific

      • Seems to be primarily increased through stretchiness of connective tissue (some sarcomere adaptation)

      • Not limited by increased muscularity (being muscle-bound is not inevitable)


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Musculoskeletal adaptations to training

  • Effects of physical activity on muscle-tendon units

    • Strength training

      • First 6-8 weeks: neurotrophic stage – improved coordination leads to rapid increases in strength

      • Then...hypertrophic stage – muscle fibers increase in cross-sectional area

    • Tendon adaptation

      • Slower to adapt than muscle

      • Adapts via collagen synthesis

      • Injuries most common at muscle-tendon junction


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Musculoskeletal adaptations to training

  • Effects of physical activity on body size, shape, and composition

    • Body composition will alter as a result of exercise, but ectomorphy might not (and weight might increase)

  • Role of lifestyle factors in determining physique

    • Many differences between athletes’ physique and those of the “normal” population are simply adaptations to training

  • Relationship of body sizes and types to sports

    • Well, we can see it can’t we?

      • Long distance runners are lighter, sprinters more muscular, gymnasts shorter, and so on...


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Results of Lab

Definitely need to take these with a pinch of salt. We could all do with training/retraining on skinfold techniques, and even then there were some definite issues with the equations

Mesomorphy

Compare to p.61

Ectomorphy

Endomorphy