International Relations in the 20th Century 24 Part 1: Peace and War in Europe, 1920–45 • WHAT YOU WILL LEARN • At the end of this chapter you should understand ... • What happened at the Paris Peace Conference. • How the League of Nations operated. • The reasons/causes of the rise to power of Mussolini and Hitler. • The dictatorships of Mussolini and Hitler. • The way in which Europe drifted towards World War II. • The progress of World War II.
World War I IRELAND & BRITAIN RUSSIAN EMPIRE Baltic Sea GERMANY Eastern Front Western Front FRANCE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE Caspian Sea ROMANIA Black Sea BULGARIA ITALY TURKISH EMPIRE What was the outcome of World War I? ALBANIA NORTH AFRICA Gallipoli Mediterranean Sea British advance 1914–18 EGYPT
Versailles: The Tragic Peace • 14-Point Plan • National self-determination • League of Nations America – Wilson • Make Germany pay Britain – Lloyd George Leaders • Revenge for German invasions • Keep Germany weak France – Clemenceau
Treaty of Versailles War Guilt Clause Reparations FINLAND NORWAY SWEDEN SOVIET RUSSIA ESTONIA Reduced Armed Forces To Denmark Demilitarisation of Rhineland Polish Corridor LATVIA IRELAND DENMARK Terms BRITAIN LITHUANIA East Prussia NETHERLANDS POLAND GERMANY To Poland BELGIUM Alsace-Lorraine To France To Poland CZECHOSLOVAKIA Rhineland AUSTRIA FRANCE SWITZ HUNGARY No Union with Austria Loss of Territory ROMANIA To Italy YUGOSLAVIA PORTUGAL ITALY Serbia BULGARIA SPAIN ALBANIA TURKEY GREECE Mediterranean Sea What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
Treaty of Versailles Too harsh on Germany ‘Diktat’ Rise of Hitler Resented War Guilt Clause Causes of WWII League of Nations failed German Reaction Assessment Resented reparations Reparations clauses Disliked smaller armed forces and loss of territory Self-determination did not work Italians angry – rise of Mussolini Why did Germany resent the Treaty of Versailles?
The League of Nations International co-operation Collective security Aims International peace Assembly Organisation – Geneva Unanimous decisions Council of Ministers Smaller conflicts Success Reparations Commission Failure – Why? Bigger countries US did not join No army; only boycott Unanimous decisions
Rise of Fascism, 1922–33 DEMOCRACIES DICTATORSHIPS USSR Stalin in Power 1929–53 Germany Adolf Hitler 1933–45 Italy Mussolini 1922–43 Spain Franco 1939–75 What is democracy? What is dictatorship?
Rise of Fascism, 1922–33 Opposition to communism/socialism Extreme nationalism Cult of all-powerful leader Racism What was fascism? Hostility to democracy What are the differences between democracy and fascism?
Fascist Italy Mussolini’s Rise to Power Italy after WWI Inflation and unemployment March on Rome Fear of communism Causes Growth of Fascist Party
Fascist Italy Acerbo Law Aventine Secession Becoming a dictator Rule by Decree • Banned opposition parties censored press, radio • Used OVRA
Fascist Italy Il Duce Propaganda Education Becoming a dictator Balila • Fascist Changes • Autostrada • Pontine Marshes • Battle for Grain • Battle for Births • Corporate State • Lateran Treaty What changes did Mussolini make in Italy?
Mussolini’s Foreign Policy Recreate glories of Roman Empire Aims Mediterranean Sea = Mare Nostrum AUSTRIA HUNGARY ROMANIA ITALY YUGOSLAVIA BULGARIA ALBANIA Albania GREECE Corfu TUNISIA Mediterranean Sea Suez Canal Peace-loving statesman El Alamein Expansion LIBYA EGYPT Red Sea Abyssinia SUDAN ERITREA FRENCH AFRICA ETHIOPIA (ABYSSINIA) SOMALILAND BELGIAN CONGO
Relations with Hitler Mussolini’s Foreign Policy • Same fascist ideas • Hitler supported Mussolini in Abyssinia • Rome–Berlin Axis • Anschluss • Pact of Steel Italy in WWII • Italy’s military weakness • Didn’t join war immediately • Invaded southern France • Needed Rommel to help Italy in North Africa • Hitler delayed invasion of Russia to help Mussolini • Mussolini’s capture and death
Hitler’s Rise to Power Hitler and Nazi Germany Weakness of the Weimar Republic Largest Party The Great Depression Hitler’s leadership of the Nazis The SA and the SS Causes Propaganda Hitler’s Policies
Hitler in Power Hitler and Nazi Germany General election 1933 Reichstag fire Enabling Law Establishing Dictatorship • THE NAZI POLICE STATE • The SS and Gestapo – could arrest anybody, read mail, listen to phone calls. • Laws making it a crime to listen to foreign radio stations or tell anti-Nazi stories. • Law courts with judges who took loyalty oath to Hitler; no juries. • Informers (including children) encouraged to spy on their families. • Control of press, radio and cinema. • Concentration camps for all opposition, e.g. Dachau set up in 1933. Police state Night of the Long Knives Der Führer
Nazi Propaganda Hitler and Nazi Germany What do these posters and the photograph tell you about Nazi Propaganda?
Hitler and Nazi Germany The Nazis and the Jews Anti-Semitism Nuremberg Laws Night of the Broken Glass The Final Solution How did the Nazis treat the Jews?
The Drift to War in Europe, 1933–39 Greater Germany Lebensraum Hitler’s Aims Destroy Treaty of Versailles
The Drift to War in Europe, 1933–39 What does this cartoon tell you about British, French and US policy towards Hitler? The Drift to War, 1933–39 1938 1935 • Anschluss with Austria • Munich Conference • Sudetenland taken by Germany 1933 • Germany introduced conscription; broke the Treaty of Versailles • Hitler came to power 1936 1934 1939 • German troops remilitarised the Rhineland • Rome–Berlin Axis • Rest of Czechoslovakia taken over by Germany • Nazi-Soviet Pact • Germany invaded Poland • World War II began • Saar Plebiscite • Hitler failed to unite with Austria
Nazi-Soviet Pact The Drift to War in Europe, 1933–39 How did the Nazi-Soviet Pact help Hitler’s plans for Poland?
FOCUS TASK Summarise Draw up a table in a page of your copybook with the heading ‘Hitler’s Foreign Policy and the Causes of World War II’. Fill in the information in short note form opposite each of the categories. Jupiter Jupiter
Invasion of Poland World War II in Europe, 1939–45 1 1 2 3 How did the German army use Blitzkrieg tactics in Poland and elsewhere?
Hitler’s Conquests 1939–40 World War II in Europe, 1939–45 Land occupied by Germany ‘Puppet’ government Route of ships taking ore to Germany Land occupied by USSR German invasions Iron ore Italian attack on France SWEDEN FINLAND NORWAY BELGIUM ESTONIA GERMANY SOVIET UNION APRIL 1940 Occupied France LATVIA IRELAND DENMARK LITHUANIA UNITED KINGDOM HOLLAND 1 SEPT. 1939 3 MAY 1940 BELGIUM POLAND SWITZERLAND Siegfried Line Maginot Line Vichy France SLOVAKIA ITALY SWITZ HUNGARY VICHY FRANCE ROMANIA YUGOSLAVIA SPAIN ITALY SPAIN BULGARIA Why was the German army so successful in 1939 and 1940?
Radar station RAF airfield Luftwaffe base Operation Sea Lion, the Battle of Britain and the Blitz Direction of German attack on Day of the Eagle, 13 August 1940 Firth of Forth BRITAIN Cover of high-level radar Newcastle Belfast Cover of low-level radar Manchester Birmingham What was the difference between the Battle of Britain and the Blitz? Coventry Thames Estuary LONDON Southampton BELGIUM English Channel FRANCE Why was Germany unable to defeat Britain?
The Desert War in North Africa Black Sea ITALY SPAIN Rome Gibraltar Mediterranean Sea TURKEY GREECE Tunis MOROCCO TUNISIA ALGERIA Suez Canal Cairo Suez El Alamein LIBYA EGYPT How was North Africa a turning point in the war?
Operation Barbarossa Why was Germany unable to defeat Soviet Russia?
The War at Sea: The Battle of the Atlantic Why did the Allies win the Battle of the Atlantic?
The War in the Air Major Events of World War II 1945 1941 • Invasion of Russia – Operation Barbarossa • Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour • USA entered the war • Hitler’s suicide • VE-Day • Atomic bombs in Japan • VJ-Day 1939 1943 • Invasion of Poland • Phoney War • End of Battle of Stalingrad 1942 1940 1944 • Battle of el Alamein • Battle of Stalingrad • Denmark and Norway conquered • Invasion and fall of France • Dunkirk • Battle of Britain • The Blitz (1940–41) • D-Day Why did the Allies win the war in the air?
Nazi-occupied Europe How did Germany rule the lands it conquered?
US/British advance The Allies Advance, 1942–45 Soviet (Russian) advance German Surrender May 1945 Warsaw Berlin BATTLE OF THE BULGE Vienna Operation Overlord D-Day June 1944 Paris Prague How was Germany invaded by the end of the war?
D-Day, June 1944 London Dover Southampton Straits of Dover Calais Plymouth Minefield Utah Omaha Gold Juno Sword Minefield Atlantic Wall Cherbourg English Channel Le Havre Caen Seine Normandy Paris Atlantic Wall FRANCE GERMAN FORTS How did the Allies succeed on D-Day?
Hitler’s Suicide End of the War Why was it a Soviet flag that first flew victoriously over Berlin?
Why the Allies won the war Population and armies American wealth Why the Allies won the war Oil production War in the air War at sea Key battles
Destruction Why the Allies won the war Death War Trials FactFile Total of Military & Civilian deaths Soviet Union 25 million Poland 6 million USA 420,000 Britain 450,000 Germany 5.2 million Italy 450,000 The United Nations Fate of Germany Results of the War Cold War European Unity End of European Supremacy