China in the 20th century History 12 Ms Leslie
1900ish • 400 million people • Mostly peasants • China was colonized • Britain had Shanghai and Hong Kong • France, Germany and Russia also had territory
Chinese government encouraged attacks on foreigners. • People basically distrust and hate foreigners • China’s industry was owned by foreigners; UK, USA and Japanese
1911 • Sun Yat-Sen leads a revolution that drives out the foreigners • It took 11 attempts; he did so on the 10th day of the 10th month. • He over threw the 5 year old emperor, Pu Yi. • established the Republic of China and was the first president. • political party was Kuomintang (KMT) and it was socialist.
Sun Yat-Sen himself, wanted to establish a democracy but no one would help him against the war lords because he has a socialist party, except for the USSR. • He wanted to modernize the country and help out the peasants. • Unfortunately Sun Yat-Sen had little control over the country and there was a lot of fighting between warlords.
WWI • Japan declared war on Germany. • Japan took territory in China. • The country sunk into civil war, the KMT vs the War lords. • Treaty of Versailles gave all the German occupied territory to Japan
1921 • Chinese Communist Party set up (CCP) • Mao Zedong (Tsetung) is 28 years old and a founding member.
1924 • Communists allowed into the Kuomintang party. • The minister for propaganda in this new formation is Mao Zedong. • Backed by Russia.
1925 • Sun Yat-Sen dies. • Chiang Kai-Shek the new leader. • The Kuomintang came under the control of Chiang Kai-Shek.
1927 • He is able to get control of southern China and the Yangtze River and then decides to purge out the Communists by killing them. • He wants to be the supreme ruler and needs the backing of business men to do so, business men hate communists. • Execution squads roamed the streets (think of Mussolini) - Mao escapes. • Chiang is the undisputed ruler by 1930.
Mao in hiding • Hangs out in the Kiangsi-Hunan region and builds up CCP • Refuses to accept Chiang as legit ruler of China • Sees peasants as the proletariat who will lead the revolution. • Promises he will take land from landlords and give it to the peasants
Chiang sees Mao as the number one enemy, even with the Japanese invading Manchuria • Chiang is able to surround Mao and cut him off from supplies, forcing him North.
Long March 1934-35 • The 6,000 mile journey to the Northern mountains. • Mao looses 3/4 of his men • Cross 18 Mountain ranges, 24 rivers and walk 24 miles a day. • Ends up in Yenan were he stays to build up support • Gets a lot of support because he drove out the Japanese
WWII • Communists fight Guerrilla war fare against Japanese. • KMT was ineffective in the war. • Chiang seemed to want to save his forced to fight the CCP then the Japanese. • Wasn’t until 1936 that Chiang decided to work with the CCP against the Japanese
Guerrilla Warfare • Mastered by Mao Zedong. Feature of modern struggles of liberation 1. Act quickly to bring about the decisive conclusions to battle 2. Use a large group to attack a small group 3. Take advantage of enemies limitations 4. Be mobile 5. Be flexible 6. Hit and run tactics 7. Rely on civilians for help
Why KMT was bad • Corrupt • Officials lining their pockets • Nothing done to help the peasants • High taxes • Forced labour • Anti-child labour laws not enforced
Chinese Revolution • Summer 1945, Moa had liberated most of Northern China • Gave liberated land to the peasants • Mao had Manchuria and was backed by the Soviets. • Keep equipment Japanese left behind. • Soviets take the factories.
Chiang sent his forces into Manchuria to take it back from the CCP. • People opposed him and upset the rail lines • Mao Names his army the People’s Liberation Army • 1948 he has 3 million soldiers
Civil war breaks out 1947-49 with Mao being victorious • Chiang flees with 1.5 million loyalists to Taiwan where he sets up Nationalist China.
On Oct 1, 1949 Mao proclaimed the People’s Republic of China • Revolution lasted 20 odd years • Was a struggle to end foreign occupation and to establish communism • Peasants, not workers lead the revolution (opposite of Russia) • An open struggle, not a conspiracy like Lenin.
Why did Mao win? 1. He fought the Japanese, Chiang did little 2. USA back Chiang – the people hate foreigners 3. KMT was corrupted 4. Communist treated people well in the places they controlled in the north
Mao’s China 1949-76 • Referred to as Red China • Mao was able to capitalize on the old Chinese tradition that country rulers were ‘mandates from heaven’. • Was able to naturally assume leadership as a dynasty.
Government immediately becomes under central control - a Leninist Idea • China was in ruins from the Japanese and civil war and the Soviets taking everything
The First Plan • Get Aid from USSR • 5 year plan emphasizing heavy industry • Like NEP • began talks with Stalin (who he didn’t trust as Stalin had backed Chiang during the war) in hopes Stalin would give him aid
USSR aid deal • A deal was finally reached in Feb 1950. o Stalin promised to return what his forces had taken from Manchuria at the end of the war o The Manchurian railway would be given back to china o Port Arthur was given back to China o Generous aid was given for economic development.
Agrarian Land Reform • land was collectivized and redistributed. • Aristocrats and landlords were eliminated and their wealth expropriated to the state. • Roughly 2 million were killed and many more fled the country during the revolution.
Agriculture • Replace small-scale private farms with Collectives • Land was initially given individually but at less the 1 acre it was useless • To mechanize and modernize you need large farms. • By 1954, as many as 200 million people worked on collective farms
By 1956 95% of available land was in large scale communes. • Communes were responsible for all services in the area such as schools and road construction.
Industry • Mao inherited a predominantly peasant society, yet Marxism is an industrial ideology. • Within 2-3 years of the revolution about 85% of heavy industry and 50% of light industry were under state ownership (Nationalized).
First 5 year plan • 1953 - it’s like NEP • State controls major industry while peasants can sell left over produce privately after taxes • Received aid from USSR • Focused on major industry - steel, oil, coal, electric power and cement. • Out put up 120% standard of living the same
Social Development • A key goal of the Communists was the social transformation of the country • Status of women had not improved greatly since feudal times. The KMT passed laws to improve the lot of women by it had little effect. • 1950 the marriage law abolished child marriage and banned infanticide.
Foot binding or Lotus Foot. • Although outlawed, still continued, these pictures were taken in 2004
Medical services were extended and public hygiene improved. • Paramedics were sent out to the country side to deliver health care.
Biggest problem was the population. In 1950 they had 450 million. • In the 1960’s it was increasing 20 million a year – 50,000 a day! • In the 1970s population control schemes were introduced, thus as the One Child Policy which would have the population declining by the 21st century.
Education also improved, especially literacy. • Between 1949 and 1959 the number of students increased from 25 million to 100 million. • Focus was on teaching skills, not political matters.
The Hundred Flowers Campaign • By 1957 the pace of change had produced political strains in China • Mao decided to lift some restrictions to avoid an opposition coalescing. • Criticisms of officials were allowed and intellectuals were encouraged to speak their mind.
This was to allow intellectuals – professors, writers and scientists to air their grievances. • Mao declared ‘let a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools of thought compete.’ • The campaign didn’t last and soon those who had spoken out were silenced. • membership of CCP increased 30%
The Great Leap Forward • The second 5 year plan 1958-62. • It was Mao’s goal to achieve ‘the work of 20 years in a single day.’ • Industrial output to double and agriculture to increase by 35%. • Central planning was abandoned to make way for the more efficient local organizations.
The Great Leap Forward openly criticized the USSR and their 5 year plans. • Mao knew these goals would not be reached without machinery, but he thought superhuman power could beat the odds.
Organized the country into 28,000 communes run by local governments called the hsiang. • Each commune had about 25,000 people on it. • By the end of 1958, 99% of peasant farms were communal. • The whole plan was to have China ‘Walk on two legs’.
great industrial and scientific activity. • There was great emphasis on muscle power and ingenuity • a lot of irrigation canals dug and hydro dams built.
‘little Steel’ • 600,000 ‘Backyard Furnaces’ were made to produce iron and steel. • Peasants were given training to make metals, machine tools, farm equipment, and spare parts, rather then have to rely on centralized factories. • There were successes with small factories but there was wide spread famine during this time as there was little focus on agriculture
Food rationing between 1959-61. • Local industrial goods were shoddy and almost useless • Major construction projects were ill conceived, poorly engineered and sometimes abandoned before completion
failure in agriculture as there were 3 years of droughts and floods. • By 1960, the USSR was no longer helping out due to a quarrel between the two countries. • By 1960 the communes were cut down to a more manageable size. • Professional managers were put back in charge of factories and bonus schemes were put in place to boost output.
Results of GLF • More opposition to Mao • Industrial production of steel, coal and fertilizer up
The Cultural Revolution 1966-69 • 1958 Mao had given up his position of President of the Chinese government, • Keeps powerful position of Chairman of the Communist Party. • he became a philosopher king and was seen as the future of communism. • worried about the growing strength of the right wing of the Communist Party