201 chapter 12 life span development ii 231 chapter 6 psychosocial development l.
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201: Chapter 12: Life Span Development II 231: Chapter 6: Psychosocial Development. Dr. Arra. Overview. Attachment Parenting Styles Moral Reasoning Daycare Temperament. Social-Emotional Development. Attachment: Emotional bond between child and caregiver Develops at about 8 months

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overview
Overview
  • Attachment
  • Parenting Styles
  • Moral Reasoning
  • Daycare
  • Temperament
social emotional development
Social-Emotional Development
  • Attachment:
  • Emotional bond between child and caregiver
  • Develops at about 8 months
  • Separation Anxiety develops at about 8 months
  • Mary Ainsworth
  • John Bowlby
  • TRUST
  • Theories relate to attachment: Erikson, Freud
attachment
Attachment

John Bowlby

  • Studied British Children separated from their families
  • During WWII
  • Defined disattachment: continued separation, no stable relationship is formed
attachment5
Attachment

Bowlby’s Phases of Attachment

  • Preattachment (0-6 wks.) infants stay close to caregiver and are upset if separated
  • Attachment in the making (6wks.-8mos.)

infant shows wariness when confronted with unfamiliar people

attachment6
Attachment

3) Attachment (8mos.-24mos.)

mother is secure base from which to explore

infant shows separation anxiety

4) Reciprocal relationships (24mos.>)

  • child spends more time away from mom
  • parent-child check in frequently
  • mutual feeling of security
attachment7
Attachment

Ainsworth’s Types of Attachment

  • Securely Attached (65%)

Mom is secure base from which to explore environment

Responds positively when others pick-up

Plays well with strangers when mom around

Upset when mom leaves

Hugs mom when she returns

attachment8
Attachment

Insecure-Avoidant: (23%)

  • Avoid/ignore mom
  • Don’t seek her comfort or touch
  • May or may not cry when mom leaves room
  • Anyone can console child

MOM: insensitive to child, show little affection

attachment9
Attachment

Anxious-Resistant: (12%)

  • Upset when mom leaves yet not consoled by her when she returns
  • Insecure, actively resist mom (kick, push)

MOM: rejecting of child

attachment10
Attachment

How to measure attachment

  • Ainsworth
  • Strange Situation: serial, scripted interactions amongst infant, caregiver, stranger
  • From this Ainsworth developed 3 types of Attachment
attachment11
Attachment

Mary Main

  • Disorganized Attachment
  • Lack an organized method for dealing with stress
  • EX: odd variations of behaviors
factors related to securely attached children
FACTORS RELATED TO SECURELY ATTACHED CHILDREN
  • Attentive Parents
  • Supportive Environment
  • Low Stress Environment
  • Good Temperament of Child
factors related to poorly attached children
FACTORS RELATED TO POORLY ATTACHED CHILDREN
  • Marital Discord
  • Stressful Environment
  • Child’s poor temperament
parenting styles
Parenting Styles
  • 4 types of Parenting Styles

Diana Baumrind (1995):

  • Authoritarian
  • Authoritative
  • Neglectful
  • Indulgent
moral reasoning
Moral Reasoning
  • Piaget’s ideas on moral reasoning: thought moral reasoning was rules/conduct for interacting with other people
  • Basic; later expanded on by Kohlberg and Gilligan
moral development
Moral Development
  • Lawrence Kohlberg
  • Expanded Piaget’s findings on Moral Development
  • Carol Gilligan
  • Expanded Kohlberg’s findings on Moral Development
moral thought
Moral Thought
  • Kohlberg examined moral thought by asking people of various ages to comment on moral situations evident in a vignette:
    • “Should Heinz steal an expensive drug in order to save the life of his wife who suffers from cancer?”
moral reasoning19
Moral Reasoning

CAROL GILLIGAN

  • Criticized Kohlberg: sex biased, culturally biased
  • Women: interpersonal relationships, compassion, care
  • Men: justice
moral reasoning20
Moral Reasoning

CAROL GILLIGAN

Women’s moral development:

  • Care for self
  • Care for others
  • Seek equality in relationships
daycare
Daycare

Several types of Daycare arrangements:

  • Homecare
  • Unlicensed Daycares
  • Licensed Daycares

- Montessori Schools

daycare22
Daycare

Outcome Research:

  • Licensed Daycares: aggression, socialization
  • Teacher : Child ratio
  • Quality of interaction
temperament
Temperament
  • Temperament refers to the basic disposition of a person; a person’s behavior style
  • Thomas and Chess categorized infants into 3 temperament types:
    • Easy children are mostly happy, relaxed and agreeable (40 %)
    • Difficult children are moody, easily frustrated, over-reactive (10 %)
    • Slow-to-warm-up children are somewhat shy and withdrawn, take time to adjust (15 %)
temperament24
Temperament
  • Research shows consistency of temperament throughout early childhood and even adulthood