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Human Growth and Development

Human Growth and Development

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Human Growth and Development

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  1. Human GrowthandDevelopment Chapter Eighteen Early Adulthood: Cognitive Development PowerPoints prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College Revised by Jenni Fauchier, Metropolitan Community College

  2. Three Approaches Postformal picks up where Piaget left off Psychometric analyzes components of intelligence (see Ch. 21) Information-processing studies the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information during lifetime (see Ch. 24)

  3. Postformal Thought Adult thinking and adolescent thinking differ in 3 ways, with adult thinking more: practical flexible dialectical

  4. A Fifth Stage of Cognitive Development? Postformal thought often viewed as fifth stage of Piaget’s theory In it, adults consider every aspect of a situation use intellectual skills for real life—work and relationships understand that conclusions and consequences matter

  5. During adulthood focus on skill application, not skill acquisition The Practical and the Personal

  6. Arise from individual’s personal experiences and perceptions Traditional models devalued subjective thought Objective thought—abstract impersonal logic For adults combination of the two works best Subjectivity & Objectivity

  7. Trying to combine both logic and emotions in dealing with an emotional issue is challenging but at each stage of adulthood, adults can achieve this balance in contrast to adolescents who believe in subjective or objective reasoning Emotions and Logic

  8. Cognitive Flexibility Awareness that your perspective is not the only one Awareness that each problem has many potential solutions and knowledge is dynamic

  9. Adult thought requires flexible adaptation, which allows adults to cope with unanticipated events come up with more than one solution to problem Flexible Problem Solving

  10. The possibility that one’s appearance or behavior will be misused to confirm another person’s oversimplified, prejudiced attitude. For example, 3 ways young minority people cope with prejudice identification, or identifying with their own group disidentification, or deliberately refusing to identify with their own group counteridentification, or identifying with majority and believing stereotypeto be accurate Stereotype Threat

  11. Cognitive flexibility at its most advanced Every idea or truth(thesis) bears within it suggestion of the opposite idea or truth(antithesis) Dialectical Thought

  12. Do Love Affairs Fail? Dialectical thinking involves considering the thesis and antithesis of an idea simultaneously and forging them into a synthesis—a new idea that integrates the original idea and its opposite, or the thesis and its antithesis Dialectical thought gives one a broader and more flexible perspective

  13. There are notable differences between Eastern and Western thought more polar; right vs. wrong; black vs. white—Western thought more of a combination or compromise—Eastern thought Culture and Cognition

  14. Culture and Cognition, cont. • Developmentalists feel culture helps to shape thought • Life-span perspective is multicontexual and multicultural, stressing adults change because of • maturation • experience

  15. Adult Moral Reasoning Ethical issues often present themselves Taking responsibility for one’s own actions perceived by young adults of all ethnic groups as marker of adulthood

  16. Life Choices parenthood life events New and different qualities of moral reasoning appear Gilligan took into consideration that life experiences contribute to a broader understanding of moral reasoning Addressing Specific Dilemmas

  17. Every young adult must make choices about • sexuality • reproduction • marriage and child rearing • issues caused by increasing globalization and immigration • Dilemmas also arise from popular culture • television • The Internet • popular music

  18. Measuring Moral Growth Defining Issues Test developed by James Rest respondents rank their priorities, from personal benefits to higher goals; this in contrast to Kohlberg’s open-ended questions ranking items leads to number score scores generally rise with age and education which make people less rigid and more flexible

  19. Measuring Moral Growth, cont. • The development of faith follows a similar path • stage 1: Intuitive-projective faith • believes in power of God and the mysteries of birth and death (3 -7) • stage 2: Mythical-literal faith • takes myths and stories of religion literally and believes in the power of symbols (8-13 and adulthood); prayers are “banked” for the future

  20. Development of faith, cont. • stage 3: Synthetic-conventional faith • has tacit acceptance of cultural/religious values in the context of interpersonal relationships • conformist stage of faith characterized by concern about others and what feels right

  21. Development of faith, cont. • stage 4: Individual-reflective faith • detaches from values of culture and approval of others • can be brought on by college or major life change such as divorce, etc.

  22. Development of faith, cont. • stage 5: Conjunctive faith • incorporates power of unconscious ideas and rational conscious values • willingness to accept contradictions

  23. Development of faith, cont. • stage 6: Universalizing faith • powerful vision of universal compassion, justice and love that compels people to live their lives in a way that seems saintly or foolish • personal welfare is put aside; a transforming experience can convert an adult to this stage

  24. Cognitive Growth and Higher Education The relationship between college education and adult development healthier, wealthier, as well as deeper, more flexible thinkers

  25. The Effects of College Education powerfully influences cognitive development improves verbal and quantitative skills, and specific subject knowledge while enhancing reasoning, reflection, and flexibility of thought

  26. The Effects of College, cont. Educational influences, cont. year-by-year progression of students’ thinking end of college finds students have generally moved from simplistic either/or ideas to recognition of multiplicity of perspectives

  27. Possible Factors in Cognitive Growth During College Other Factors To Consider Change in Students Change in Institutions

  28. The sheer numbers have increased greatly, worldwide In all nations, increased student diversity more women students more older students more culturally diverse students in United States more low-income students more working students Change in the Students

  29. Changes in the Institutions Structure of higher education changing with student population changes Almost twice as many U.S. institutions of higher learning today than in 1970 community college enrollment up 144 percent more career programs more part-time faculty more women and minority instructors

  30. Evaluating the Research Factors that may prevent college education from being as powerful a force in producing cognitive growth as it could be cohort effects selection effects dropout rates

  31. Evaluating the Research, cont. • The weight of evidence suggests that college • advances income • promotes health • deepens thinking • increases tolerance of different political, social, and religious views