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Intellectual Development in Infants

Intellectual Development in Infants

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Intellectual Development in Infants

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  1. Intellectual Development in Infants Chapter 9

  2. Early Brain Development • Neurons – nerve cells in brain • Neural pathways – links between neurons – wire the brain for thinking processes • Link development reach peak at age 10

  3. Brain structure • Cerebrum • Thalamus • Cerebellum • Pituitary Gland • Brain Stem • Spinal Cord

  4. How the Brain Works • Axons • Myelin • Dendrites • Synapses • Neurotransmitters • See images page 283

  5. Stimulate Brain Development • Keep it simple and natural • Match experiences to child’s mental abilities. • Practice makes perfect • Actively involve the baby • Provide variety , but avoid overload • Avoid pushing the child. See page 286

  6. Intellectual Development in the First Year • Key terms • Perception • Attention span • Sensorimotor period • Object permanence • Imaginative play • Symbolic thinking • Concepts

  7. Signs of Intellectual Development • Remembering experiences • Making associations • Understanding cause and effect • Paying attention

  8. Piaget’s Learning Theories • Sensorimotor – 0-2 years – learn thru senses and actions. • Preoperational – 2-7 years – in the moment – own activities and perceptions • Concrete operations – 7-11 years – think logically, learn best thru experiences • Formal operations – 11-adult – capable of abstract thinking

  9. Sensory Play • Learning to move hands and feet • Crawling and walking – opens up world • Seeing, touching smelling, listening • Everything goes in mouth • Need to provide objects and toys that stimulate child’s senses

  10. Concept Development • Concepts – general categories of objects and information • Think that labels are for whole objects, not parts • Think that labels apply to the group that the objects belong in • Believe that an objects can only have one label.

  11. Helping Infants Learn • Understand Age Appropriate for each child • Give child time and attention • Positive feedback • Express love • Talk, talk, talk • Keep environment safe – child proof

  12. Different Toys for Different Ages • Birth to 3 mos. • 4-6 mos. • 7-9 mos. • 10-12 mos.

  13. Toys • The word “Toy” comes from an old English term that means :TOOL • Toys are TOOLS for a child. • With these tools, children are allowed to use their senses, fine and gross motor skills, and their imaginations. • Cognitive and social skills are also increased as a child plays with toys. • Toys are valuable TEACHING tools.

  14. Toy Selection • Make sure the toy is DAP • Toys for age-appropriate development of the child • Soft & Cuddling Toys • Dolls, stuffed animals, etc. • Manipulation/Small Motor Skill Toys • Blocks, puzzles, snap, gears, games, etc. • Large Motor Skill Toys • Tricycles/bikes, balls, jump ropes, scooters, etc. • Dramatic Play • Dress-up clothes, furniture and accessories, etc.

  15. Safety Issues • SIZE of toy and pieces • Larger than the child’s two fists • No SHARP edges or points • Broken toys should be fixed or thrown away • NON-TOXIC materials • Avoid all painted toys for babies & toddlers • DURABLE, WASHABLE and CLEAN • Toy’s that won’t break easily • Toys that can be cleaned easily

  16. Child Protection and Safety Act • SIZE of toy and pieces • Larger than the child’s two fists • No SHARP edges or points • Broken toys should be fixed or thrown away • NON-TOXIC materials • Avoid all painted toys for babies & toddlers • DURABLE, WASHABLE and CLEAN • Toy’s that won’t break easily • Toys that can be cleaned easily

  17. Toys should be … • AGE- APPROPRIATE (DAP) • Check the suggested age on the packaging • SAFE • This applies to new and used toys • TEACH a Skill or Concept • Aide in one of the 5 areas of Child Development • FUN - FUN - FUN!!!

  18. The End • For more fun view Classic Toys PowerPoint