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Intellectual Development in Infants. Chapter 9. Early Brain Development. Neurons – nerve cells in brain Neural pathways – links between neurons – wire the brain for thinking processes Link development reach peak at age 10. Brain structure. Cerebrum Thalamus Cerebellum Pituitary Gland

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early brain development
Early Brain Development
  • Neurons – nerve cells in brain
  • Neural pathways – links between neurons – wire the brain for thinking processes
  • Link development reach peak at age 10
brain structure
Brain structure
  • Cerebrum
  • Thalamus
  • Cerebellum
  • Pituitary Gland
  • Brain Stem
  • Spinal Cord
how the brain works
How the Brain Works
  • Axons
  • Myelin
  • Dendrites
  • Synapses
  • Neurotransmitters
  • See images page 283
stimulate brain development
Stimulate Brain Development
  • Keep it simple and natural
  • Match experiences to child’s mental abilities.
  • Practice makes perfect
  • Actively involve the baby
  • Provide variety , but avoid overload
  • Avoid pushing the child. See page 286
intellectual development in the first year
Intellectual Development in the First Year
  • Key terms
    • Perception
    • Attention span
    • Sensorimotor period
    • Object permanence
    • Imaginative play
    • Symbolic thinking
    • Concepts
signs of intellectual development
Signs of Intellectual Development
  • Remembering experiences
  • Making associations
  • Understanding cause and effect
  • Paying attention
piaget s learning theories
Piaget’s Learning Theories
  • Sensorimotor – 0-2 years – learn thru senses and actions.
  • Preoperational – 2-7 years – in the moment – own activities and perceptions
  • Concrete operations – 7-11 years – think logically, learn best thru experiences
  • Formal operations – 11-adult – capable of abstract thinking
sensory play
Sensory Play
  • Learning to move hands and feet
  • Crawling and walking – opens up world
  • Seeing, touching smelling, listening
  • Everything goes in mouth
  • Need to provide objects and toys that stimulate child’s senses
concept development
Concept Development
  • Concepts – general categories of objects and information
    • Think that labels are for whole objects, not parts
    • Think that labels apply to the group that the objects belong in
    • Believe that an objects can only have one label.
helping infants learn
Helping Infants Learn
  • Understand Age Appropriate for each child
  • Give child time and attention
  • Positive feedback
  • Express love
  • Talk, talk, talk
  • Keep environment safe – child proof
different toys for different ages
Different Toys for Different Ages
  • Birth to 3 mos.
  • 4-6 mos.
  • 7-9 mos.
  • 10-12 mos.
slide13
Toys
  • The word “Toy” comes from an old English term that means :TOOL
  • Toys are TOOLS for a child.
  • With these tools, children are allowed to use their senses, fine and gross motor skills, and their imaginations.
  • Cognitive and social skills are also increased as a child plays with toys.
  • Toys are valuable TEACHING tools.
toy selection
Toy Selection
  • Make sure the toy is DAP
    • Toys for age-appropriate development of the child
  • Soft & Cuddling Toys
    • Dolls, stuffed animals, etc.
  • Manipulation/Small Motor Skill Toys
    • Blocks, puzzles, snap, gears, games, etc.
  • Large Motor Skill Toys
    • Tricycles/bikes, balls, jump ropes, scooters, etc.
  • Dramatic Play
    • Dress-up clothes, furniture and accessories, etc.
safety issues
Safety Issues
  • SIZE of toy and pieces
      • Larger than the child’s two fists
  • No SHARP edges or points
      • Broken toys should be fixed or thrown away
  • NON-TOXIC materials
      • Avoid all painted toys for babies & toddlers
  • DURABLE, WASHABLE and CLEAN
      • Toy’s that won’t break easily
      • Toys that can be cleaned easily
child protection and safety act
Child Protection and Safety Act
  • SIZE of toy and pieces
      • Larger than the child’s two fists
  • No SHARP edges or points
      • Broken toys should be fixed or thrown away
  • NON-TOXIC materials
      • Avoid all painted toys for babies & toddlers
  • DURABLE, WASHABLE and CLEAN
      • Toy’s that won’t break easily
      • Toys that can be cleaned easily
toys should be
Toys should be …
  • AGE- APPROPRIATE (DAP)
    • Check the suggested age on the packaging
  • SAFE
    • This applies to new and used toys
  • TEACH a Skill or Concept
    • Aide in one of the 5 areas of Child Development
  • FUN - FUN - FUN!!!
the end
The End
  • For more fun view Classic Toys PowerPoint
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