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Inclusive Pedagogy: Transformative Teaching & Learning. By Paul C. Gorski University of Wisconsin-Superior August 2009. I. What We Think We Know. The Who Said It? Quiz. I. Introduction: Who We Are. Who is in the room? My background and lenses. I. Introduction: Agenda.

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inclusive pedagogy transformative teaching learning

Inclusive Pedagogy: Transformative Teaching & Learning

By Paul C. Gorski

University of Wisconsin-Superior

August 2009

i what we think we know
I. What We Think We Know

The Who Said It? Quiz...

i introduction who we are
I. Introduction: Who We Are
  • Who is in the room?
  • My background and lenses
i introduction agenda
I. Introduction: Agenda
  • Introductory Blabber (in progress)
  • Starting Assumptions
  • Morning Calisthenics
  • Conceptualizing Equitable Education
  • Dimensions of Equity in a Learning Environment
i introduction agenda cont d
I. Introduction: Agenda Cont’d

6. Scenarios

7. Tips and Techniques for Practice

i introduction primary arguments
I. Introduction: Primary Arguments
  • Inclusive pedagogy, at its heart, is about creating equitable and just learning environments
  • It is about curriculum, and it’s about more than curriculum
  • Being an inclusive educator involves shifts of consciousness that inform shifts in practice
i introduction objectives
I. Introduction: Objectives
  • Develop deep understanding of the process of creating an inclusive (equitable) learning environment
  • Connect curriculum development to pedagogy, classroom climate, and context for a broad vision of “equitable learning environment”
i introduction warning
I. Introduction: Warning!!!

I do not have any of the following:

  • “The” multicultural curriculum formula or workbook,
  • A tidy set of activities for you to implement in your classroom tomorrow, or
  • A single book or video that will make any class “multicultural”
i introduction however
I. Introduction: However…

I do have all of the following:

  • A framework for thinking complexly and critically about educational equity,
  • Strategies for creating equitable learning environments based on your curricular and pedagogical expertise, and
  • Some difficult, sometimes even uncomfortable, questions about what is and what could be in higher education.
i introduction
I. Introduction

You will get the most out of this workshop if you:

  • allow yourself to be challenged;
  • react openly to cognitive dissonance;
  • acknowledge your own great expertise; and
  • acknowledge your need for even greater expertise.
ii starting assumption 1
II. Starting Assumption #1
  • All students deserve the best possible education, regardless of:
    • Socioeconomic status or class
    • Gender
    • Religion
    • Citizenship status
    • (Dis)ability
    • Race or ethnicity
    • Sexual Orientation
    • Etc.
ii starting assumption 2
II. Starting Assumption #2
  • Educational equity is deeper than simple curricular content
    • Pedagogy
    • Assessment
    • Classroom/School Climate
    • Distribution of Power
ii starting assumption 3
II. Starting Assumption #3
  • Education is NOT politically neutral
    • We decide which readings and activities to use in class
    • We decide how students are to be assessed
    • We decide to engage (or not engage) students in the learning process
    • And so on...
ii starting assumption 4
II. Starting Assumption #4
  • The problem of educational inequity is one of consciousness, not only one of practice
    • Impossibility of implementing a multicultural education if one doesn’t think and see multiculturally
    • Even with a great curriculum, I cannot teach against racism if I am a racist
ii starting assumption 5
II. Starting Assumption #5
  • A single instructor cannot undo systemic inequities in a university or the larger society.
    • But at the very least we can make sure we’re not replicating those inequities in our own curricula and pedagogies—our own spheres of influence.

* * *

iii conceptualizing equitable education

III. Conceptualizing Equitable Education

Contextualizing the Equitable Learning Environment

iii conceptualizing equitable education1
III. Conceptualizing Equitable Education
  • How do you define “inclusive education”? What does it look like?
    • Twos or threes
    • Quick report back
iii conceptualizing equitable education2
III. Conceptualizing Equitable Education

Important Concepts

  • Equity vs. Equality
  • Hegemony
  • Deficit Theory
  • Master Narrative
iii conceptualizing equitable education3
III. Conceptualizing Equitable Education

Important Concept #1

  • Equity vs. Equality
iii conceptualizing equitable education4
III. Conceptualizing Equitable Education

Important Concept #2

  • Hegemony
iii conceptualizing equitable education5
III. Conceptualizing Equitable Education

Important Concept #3

  • Deficit Theory
    • See Hurricane Katrina piece
iii conceptualizing equitable education6
III. Conceptualizing Equitable Education

Important Concept #4

Master Narrative

24

iii conceptualizing equitable education7
III. Conceptualizing Equitable Education

Approaches to Inclusive Education

  • Status Quo
  • Heroes & Holidays (Additive)
  • Representational Integration
  • Critical Integration
  • Equitable & Inclusive Education
iii conceptualizing equitable education8
III. Conceptualizing Equitable Education

The Four Curricula

Official

Explicit

Implicit or “hidden”

Null

26

iii conceptualizing equitable education9
III. Conceptualizing Equitable Education

The Official Curriculum

What the institution publicly tells the world about itself

Mission statements, vision statements, syllabi, other official and public documents

27

iii conceptualizing equitable education10
III. Conceptualizing Equitable Education

The Explicit Curriculum

What is purposefully taught in the curriculum or co-curriculum

The units, lessons, readings, assignments—that which is assessed

28

iii conceptualizing equitable education11
III. Conceptualizing Equitable Education

The Implicit (or “Hidden”) Curriculum

What is taught implicitly, usually without conscious purpose, through behavior, policy, relationships, and social conditions

Often hidden in “the way things are”--hegemony

29

iii conceptualizing equitable education12
III. Conceptualizing Equitable Education

The Null Curriculum

Part of the hidden curriculum—that which is learned by what is omitted from the curriculum

Ex.: sexual orientation’s omission from the “diversity requirement” policy

30

iii conceptualizing equitable education13
III. Conceptualizing Equitable Education

For your reflection:

What are two examples of the hidden curriculum of UW-Superior?

What are the implications of this hidden curriculum?

Who benefits (or is protected) by it, and who is hurt by it?

31

iii conceptualizing equitable education14
III. Conceptualizing Equitable Education

For your continued reflection:

If I were to ask one of your students about the hidden curriculum of your classes, what would she or he say?

And the null curriculum?

* * *

32

iv dimensions of equitable education in practice1
IV. Dimensions of Equitable Education in Practice

Adapted from the work of Maurianne Adams and Barbara J. Love (2006).

iv dimensions of equitable education in practice2
IV. Dimensions of Equitable Education in Practice

1. What Students Bring to the Classroom

  • Past educational experiences (it’s not always all about us)
  • Complex identities, prejudices, biases
  • Expectations about the roles of students and professors
  • Varying learning styles, intelligences, ways of illustrating learning
iv dimensions of equitable education in practice3
IV. Dimensions of Equitable Education in Practice

2. What We Bring to the Classroom

  • Complex socializations, identities, biases, and prejudices
  • Notions about the purposes of education and our roles as professors
  • A teaching style, often related to our own preferred learning styles and how we’ve been taught
iv dimensions of equitable education in practice4
IV. Dimensions of Equitable Education in Practice

3. Curriculum Content

  • Perspective and worldview: Whose voices are centered, whose are “other”ed?
  • Is content, whenever possible, made relevant to the lives of the students?
  • The “hidden curriculum”?
  • Are multicultural issues addressed explicitly?
iv dimensions of equitable education in practice5
IV. Dimensions of Equitable Education in Practice

4. Pedagogy

  • Focus on critical, complex thinking and asking critical questions
  • Paying attention to inequity in classroom processes
  • Attending to sociopolitical relationships (power and privilege) in the classroom
  • Using authentic assessment techniques
v the equitable learning environment
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

Part 1: What Your Students Bring to the Classroom

v the equitable learning environment1
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

1. What Students Bring into the Classroom

A. Find ways to challenge stereotypes (both in society and your own field)

Example: Albert Einstein as a white, male scientist who wrote very progressive essays about racism, imperialism, etc.

v the equitable learning environment2
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

1. What Students Bring into the Classroom

B. Watch for and challenge student behaviors and relationships that reflect stereotypical roles

Example: Men assuming the lead in lab activities, women being “note-taker” in small groups

v the equitable learning environment3
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

1. What Students Bring into the Classroom

C. Be thoughtful about how you create cooperative teams or small groups

Example: Avoid temptation to “distribute” people from under-represented groups (tokenism)

v the equitable learning environment4
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

1. What Students Bring into the Classroom

D. Understand students’ reactions to you and your social identities in context

Example: Even if you don’t think much about your whiteness (for example), it may mean something significant to students of color who may only rarely not have white professors

v the equitable learning environment5
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

1. What Students Bring into the Classroom

E. Help students un-learn the ways of being and seeing that lend themselves to prejudice

Example: Dichotomous thinking, competitive nature of learning (NOTE: this also means WE have to un-learn)

v the equitable learning environment6
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

Part 2: What You Bring to the Classroom

v the equitable learning environment7
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

2. What You Bring into the Classroom

A. Identify and work to eliminate your biases, prejudices, and assumptions (yes, you do have them) about various groups of students

Example: Race/ethnicity, gender, religion, sexual orientation, religion, socioeconomic status, (dis)ability, first language, etc.

v the equitable learning environment8
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

2. What You Bring into the Classroom

B. Identify and work to broaden your teaching style (which, according to research, probably suits your learning style)

Note: Research shows that two elements most effect how somebody teaches: (1) their preferred learning style, and (2) how they were taught what they’re teaching

v the equitable learning environment9
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

2. What You Bring into the Classroom

C. Identify and work on your “hot buttons”

Question: What are the issues that set you off to the point that you become an ineffective educator/facilitator?

v the equitable learning environment10
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

2. What You Bring into the Classroom

D. Provide students with periodic opportunities to share anonymous feedback

Note: Students already feeling disempowered and disconnected are not likely to approach you about your teaching or curriculum

v the equitable learning environment11
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

2. What You Bring into the Classroom

E. Share examples of when you’ve struggled to climb out of the box and to see the world and your field in their full complexity

Note: When we make ourselves vulnerable we make it easier for students to do the same

v the equitable learning environment12
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

2. What You Bring into the Classroom

F. Consider the significance of the professor/student power relationship and what this means re: student learning

Question: What might it mean to be a white male computer science professor teaching a young African American woman in a field historically hostile to African American women?

v the equitable learning environment13
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

2. What You Bring into the Classroom

G. Identify the gaps in your knowledge about equity issues and pursue the information to fill those gaps

Point: I cannot teach anti-classism if I’m unwilling to deal with my own classism

v the equitable learning environment14
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

2. What You Bring into the Classroom

H. Build the skills necessary to intervene effectively when equity issues arise

Examples: Racist joke or comment, sexual harassment, men talking over women

v the equitable learning environment15
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

2. What You Bring into the Classroom

I. Mind your compliments

Point: Research indicates that educators, regardless of gender, are most likely to compliment male students on their intelligence. Female students? On their appearance.

v the equitable learning environment16
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

Part 3: Curriculum Content

v the equitable learning environment17
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

3. Curriculum Content

A. Assign tasks that challenge traditional social roles

Example: Assign men to be note-takers, women to be group facilitators

v the equitable learning environment18
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

3. Curriculum Content

B. Try centering the sources you previously may have used as supplements

Example: Slave narratives as central history texts instead of supplements to a more Eurocentric framing of history

v the equitable learning environment19
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

3. Curriculum Content

C. Avoid other-ing; weave diverse voices and sources seamlessly together instead of having separate sections or units

Example: No units on “women poets” or “Latino voices,” etc.

v the equitable learning environment20
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

3. Curriculum Content

D. Discuss ways people in your field have used (and continue to use) their scholarship and platforms to advocate for social justice

Examples: Leontyne Price, Howard Zinn, Stephen J. Gould, Ida B. Wells, Mark Twain

v the equitable learning environment21
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

3. Curriculum Content

E. Discuss ways people in your field have used (and continue to use) their scholarship and platforms to support inequity and injustice

Examples: “Science”: eugenics; “journalists”: refusal to critique Bush foreign policy during war-time; etc.

v the equitable learning environment22
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

3. Curriculum Content

F. Discuss the history of oppression and exclusion in your field and how this has affected knowledge bases in your field

Examples: Women and STEM fields (and law, business, etc.)

v the equitable learning environment23
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

3. Curriculum Content

G. Vary your instructional materials as a way to draw in students with various learning styles

Suggestion: Consider visual, tactile, aural, and other dimensions of your instructional materials

Note: Doesn’t mean every lesson must include all of these, but that they’re distributed over the course of the semester

v the equitable learning environment24
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

3. Curriculum Content

H. Encourage students to raise critical questions, not only about the content itself, but about how the content is presented in educational materials

Example: Use of male anatomy as “standard”; differentiation between “American literature” and “African American literature” (and misuse of the term “American”)

v the equitable learning environment26
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

4. Pedagogy

A. Be very clear about how you expect students to participate (open discussion, raised hands, etc.)

Related suggestion: Avoid first-hand-up, first-called-on approach

v the equitable learning environment27
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

4. Pedagogy

B. Never, under any circumstance, invalidate or allow other students to invalidate concerns of inequity raised by students from disenfranchised groups

v the equitable learning environment28
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

4. Pedagogy

C. Avoid putting students from disenfranchised groups in positions to have to teach people from privileged groups about their privilege

v the equitable learning environment29
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

4. Pedagogy

D. Develop your facilitation skills so that you can effectively facilitate “difficult dialogues” about racism, sexism, classism, heterosexism, etc.

Note: When these dialogues happen, be comfortable advocating for equity

v the equitable learning environment30
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

4. Pedagogy

E. Design assignments that encourage students to apply what they’re learning to a human rights issue

v the equitable learning environment31
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

4. Pedagogy

F. Allow students, when possible, to choose how they will be assessed (as people don’t demonstrate understanding and application in the same ways)

Example: Choice between an essay or an application project

v the equitable learning environment32
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

4. Pedagogy

G. Invite a colleague to observe your teaching and provide feedback on a variety of concerns

v the equitable learning environment33
V. The Equitable Learning Environment

4. Pedagogy

H. Use peer teaching, peer feedback, and other peer interactions to provide students an opportunity to learn content through a variety of lenses

closing reflection
Closing Reflection

Humility is the ability to see.

-Terry Tempest Williams

thank you

Thank you.

Paul C. Gorski

gorski@edchange.org

http://www.edchange.org