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  1. Inclusive Teaching Practices for Supporting Students with Disabilities Katherine Deibel Computer Science & Engineering February 11, 2009

  2. Who am I? Who are you? Practical Pedagogy

  3. Respecting Others • Disability is a complex and potentially personal subject • Treat others as you want to be treated • Respect opinions of others • React with teaching not anger • Use the words you feel comfortable with • Ask questions (verbally or by notecards) Practical Pedagogy

  4. My Biases • I have a disability / I’m a disability advocate • Clinical depression and social anxiety • I’m a scientist • Subscribe to both a social and a medical model of disability • I’m an armchair educator • Disability expertise: • Learning disabilities • Psychological disabilities Practical Pedagogy

  5. University Students with Disabilities • Increased enrollments (entering freshmen) • 1978: 2.3% • 1998: 9.8% • Estimates of 4-year undergraduates with disabilities • 10.6% (2004) • 11.3% (2003) How can universities best service students with disabilities? Sources: Scott et al, 2003; NSF 2004-316; NCES 2006-184 Practical Pedagogy

  6. All or “None” Support • Instructors legally cannot give “special treatment” to individual students • Exception 1: • Individual student has requested disability accommodations through proper channels • Said accommodations must be complied with exactly as described (no more, no less) • Exception 2: • Inclusive education Practical Pedagogy

  7. What is Inclusive Education? • Provide an equitable educational experience for all students of all diversities • All types of (dis)abilities • Low-performing and high-performing students • Cultural and ethnic diversity • Learning styles and personality types Practical Pedagogy

  8. What is Inclusive Education? • Provide an equitable educational experience for all students of all abilities • Proactively minimize the need for students with disabilities to request accommodations • Build supports into regular teaching practice • Not limited to classrooms: • Departmental resources and events • Libraries, labs, computing, etc. • Extracurricular activities • Student services and offices Practical Pedagogy

  9. WASTE OF RESOURCES!!! Inclusive Classroom – Extreme Version 1 Anticipate everything by making all classes include: Stuff to Learn • Lesson 1 • Lesson 2 • Lesson 3 Blah blah blah Blah Lesson 2 • ASL signers • Audio amplification • Live captioning • Braille displays • Modular seating • ... zzz Lesson 2 ASL ASL Built-inClassroom Accommodations Practical Pedagogy

  10. TOO PARANOID TO TEACH!!! Inclusive Classroom – Extreme Version 2 Avoid anything that is non-accessible: ??? • PowerPoint • Graphs or diagrams • Verbal lectures • Written communication • Physical movement • Psychic communication • … ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? Avoid Anything Inaccessible Practical Pedagogy

  11. Principles of Inclusive Education • Equitable education for all students of all abilities • Consider all types and nuances of disabilities • Minimize (not eliminate) need for accommodations • Universal design • Proactive instead of reactive • Improve access and usefulness for everyone • Using access technologies when appropriate • Utilize sound pedagogical practices • Awareness of disabilities and education Practical Pedagogy

  12. Outline • Introduction • Disability Awareness • Inclusive Practices • Concluding Thoughts Practical Pedagogy

  13. Disability Awareness • Disability types and prevalence • Accommodation laws and policies • Assistive technologies • Social aspects of disabilities • Student perspectives on • Accommodations • Their disabilities • Teaching Practical Pedagogy

  14. Meet Our Guides Practical Pedagogy

  15. Disability Resources for Students Meet Our Guides Practical Pedagogy

  16. Student Profile: Alan • 26 year old male junior (commuter) • Developmental disability affecting memory and reading/writing ability • Enrolled in computer animation • Art major • Registered with disability services • Books-on-tape • Note takers • Extra time on tests Practical Pedagogy

  17. Student Profile: Seth • 18 year old male freshman • Deaf in left ear • Enrolled in CS1 • Interested in computer engineering • Plays saxophone in a jazz band • Used a hearing aid as a child • Chooses not to use a hearing aid now Practical Pedagogy

  18. Student Profile: Pam • 19 year old female freshman • General anxiety disorder • Enrolled in CS2 • Interested in CS or EE • Recent diagnosis of anxiety disorder and panic attacks • Discloses only to family and close friends • Only beginning to view anxiety as a disability Practical Pedagogy

  19. Student Profile: Dave • 19 year old male freshman • Obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and low-level depression • Enrolled in CS1 (out of curiosity) • Psychology / Pre-Med major • Does not view himself as disabled • Father called up for deployment to Iraq • Applied for a hardship course withdrawal Practical Pedagogy

  20. Wait… are these good guides? Practical Pedagogy

  21. Wait… are these good guides? • Only in computing courses… … their observations are generally universal • Are they representative of the types of disabilities seen at universities? • Two do not view themselves as disabled • Only one is registered with disability services Practical Pedagogy

  22. Disabilities in the Classroom What disabilities do expect to see among your students? Practical Pedagogy

  23. Disability Distribution in U.S. Colleges Disabilities of Students Registered with Disability Services at 4-year U.S. Universities Other 5% Health 6% Mental/Emotional 10% Hearing 6% Learning 55% Visual 5% Speech 1% Mobility 12% Disabilities at U.S. Colleges & Universities (NCES Report 1999-046) Practical Pedagogy

  24. Our Guides Mental/Emotional Learning Dave Pam Alan Seth Hearing Practical Pedagogy

  25. Wait… are these good guides? • Only in computing courses… … their observations are generally universal • Are they representative of the types of disabilities seen at universities? • Two do not view themselves as disabled • Only one is registered with disability services Practical Pedagogy

  26. Legal Definition of Disability Americans with Disabilities Act (1990): Any physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss affecting one or more of the following body systems: neurological, musculoskeletal, special sense organs, respiratory (including speech organs), cardiovascular, reproductive, digestive, genitourinary, hemic and lymphatic, skin, and endocrine… Any mental or psychological disorder, such as mental retardation, organic brain syndrome, emotional or mental illness, and specific learning disabilities… Practical Pedagogy

  27. The Not-So-Big Three Disabilities • People tend to think of disability as: • Mobility impairments 12% • Visual impairments 5% • Hearing impairments 6% 23% • Reasons for Focus: • Readily visible to others • Conditions are easy to relate to • Accommodations are “straightforward” Practical Pedagogy

  28. Alan Dave Seth Pam Phrasing of Diagnoses “Developmental disability affecting “memory and reading” “Deaf in left ear” “Psychological disorders” Practical Pedagogy

  29. Disabilities, Denial, and Hiding Why would a person hide or deny having a disability? Practical Pedagogy

  30. Stigma • Societal “disapproval” or negativity towards people who are different • Us and them mentality • Stereotyping • Not necessarily intentional or explicit • Effects of stigma • Internalized embarrassment • Ridicule or teasing by others • Stereotype threat Practical Pedagogy

  31. Alan Disability, Stigmas, and Ridicule • Disability label shapes perception of person • To be pitied or in need of extra help • Less intelligent or capable • Lowered expectations: McDermott. “The Acquisition of a Child by a Learning Disability.” 1993. Told he would fail in the design industry because of his disability despite a resume showing design experience and strong management skills. Practical Pedagogy

  32. Disability, Stigmas, and Ridicule • Disbelief and accusations • “You don’t look like anything is wrong with you.” • “But you speak so intelligently.” • Accusations of fraud and deceit • Students are faking it • Articles in Chronicle of Higher Education Sources: Williams & Ceci, 1999; Zirkel, 2000 Practical Pedagogy

  33. Misunderstanding Disability • Difficult to relate to most invisible disabilities • Misunderstandings on impact of disability • Andrew Imparato, President of AAPD • Bipolar Disorder • Once asked in a job interview, “Everyone sees a therapist nowadays, what’s the big deal?” • “Liz”, Political Science Graduate Student • Learning and attention disabilities • Instructor told her that everyone has preferred learning styles and good students need to learn to adjust Practical Pedagogy

  34. Dave Pam Unaware of Disability • Some students slip through the cracks • Some disabilities arise in adulthood • Psychological conditions • Autoimmune disorders (CFS, MS, etc.) • Trauma and accidents Diagnosed senior year of high school Began psychotherapy upon starting college Practical Pedagogy

  35. Disability Promotes Hiding • Some disabilities limit communication • Speech and communication disorders • Anxiety issues Q: Would you ask an instructor or TA for help regarding your anxiety? “Because of the person I am, I probably “would not tell them and try to deal with the “problem myself... I’d just think I’d be kind “of embarrassed and feel like I was just “complaining...” Pam Practical Pedagogy

  36. Wait… are these good guides? • Only in computing courses… … their observations are generally universal • Are they representative of the types of disabilities seen at universities? • Two do not view themselves as disabled • Only one is registered with disability services Practical Pedagogy

  37. Alan Dave Seth Pam The Guides and DRS Is registered with DRS Can self-accommodate adequately Do not view selves as disabled Practical Pedagogy

  38. Registering with Disability Services Why would a disabled student not register with DRS? • Does not view self as disabled • Chooses to hide disability from others Practical Pedagogy

  39. Accommodation Request Process • In K-12… • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and Individualized Education Plans • Schools responsible for accommodations • Parents often advocate for their child • In College… • Americans with Disabilities Act • Student must request accommodations • Independence from parents • Motivation to be one’s own advocate Practical Pedagogy

  40. Accommodation Process Challenges • Not knowing what to request • Poor experiences with previous accommodations • Not familiar with process • Providing proof of disability • Prior testing not always sufficient or current • Prohibitively expensive testing • Repercussions of being labeled as disabled • Wanting to prove themselves without help Practical Pedagogy

  41. Seth Disability Does Not Qualify • Legal rules on what is and is not a disability • Color blindness • 7% of males, 0.4% of females (USA) • Red-green difficulty or Blue-yellow difficulty • Rarely qualifies for accommodations Chooses not to use a hearing aid Consulted with DRS—not viewed as being significantly limited in his hearing Practical Pedagogy

  42. Unregistered Students Matter! • Chances are, you have students with disabilities in your classroom! • Built-in accommodations help: • Those with disabilities you know about! • Those with disabilities you do not know about! • And anyone else! Practical Pedagogy

  43. Alan Dave Seth Pam Introductions and Insights Introductions Accommodation Policies Disability Types & Prevalence Social Aspects of Disabilities Practical Pedagogy

  44. Outline • Introduction • Disability Awareness • Inclusive Teaching Practices • Concluding Thoughts Practical Pedagogy

  45. What Are Inclusive Practices? • Recognizing and supporting student self-advocacy • Encouraging classroom community • Attending to different learning styles • Artifacting the classroom • Address mistakes promptly and smartly • Flexibility and adaptation • Thinking thoroughly about assessment Recognized Good Pedagogical Practices! Practical Pedagogy

  46. Alan Seth Student Self-Advocacy • Taking personal responsibility (good or bad) for managing one’s education and (dis)ability • Contacts instructors before start of every term about accommodations • Chooses not to use a hearing aid • Usually chooses seating positions that favor his good ear • Sometimes sits by friends instead Practical Pedagogy

  47. Alan “Generally, I try to keep my parents out of my business being that I’m a junior in college, but at this point my mom did get involved because she saw how frustrated and angry I was.” Student Self-Advocacy • Failure in self-advocacy leads to self-loathing and embarrassment and Describing the aftermath of failing to receive the animation textbook on tape in time. Practical Pedagogy

  48. Student Self-Advocacy: How • Discuss an academic accommodations statement in syllabus on first day of class Academic Accommodations: If you would like to request academic accommodations due to a disability, please contact Disabled Student Services, 448 Schmitz, 543-8924 (V/TDD). If you already have a letter from Disabled Student Services indicating you have a disability that requires academic accommodations, please let the instructor know so we can discuss the appropriate accommodations. Practical Pedagogy

  49. Student Self-Advocacy: How • Foster a classroom community and dialogue: • Discuss diversity of abilities and learning styles • Admit you are still learning about providing access • Encourage students to give feedback on your pedagogical practices • Discuss relevant disabilities to entire class • If disability has a noticeable impact on the class • Only with permission and cooperation of student Practical Pedagogy

  50. Software tutorials in class difficult to take notes about • Recognizes usefulness to others Alan • Prefers when instructors write and say aloud what they are doing • Helps bypass his hearing problems Seth Different Learning Styles • Students can readily identify what teaching styles work or do not work for them Practical Pedagogy