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Peter H. Putman, CTS President, ROAM Consulting Inc. Founder, Trends In Display Technologies The Wild Ride Continues… The Next Big Thing Is… 2004 was the year of intelligent displays 2005 is the year of “HD” (1080p) displays 1920x1080 front and rear projection

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peter h putman cts president roam consulting inc founder hdtvexpert com
Peter H. Putman, CTS

President, ROAM Consulting Inc.


Trends In Display TechnologiesThe Wild Ride Continues…
the next big thing is
The Next Big Thing Is…
  • 2004 was the year of intelligent displays
  • 2005 is the year of “HD” (1080p) displays
    • 1920x1080 front and rear projection
    • 1920x1080 flat panel monitors
    • 1400x1050, 1600x1200, 2048x1536 displays
  • 16:9 aspect ratios more and more popular
  • 1920x1080 is a shared TV / PC resolution
the next big thing is3
The Next Big Thing Is…
  • Most significant display products shown at CES, CeBIT, and NAB were HD 1080p displays
    • Sharp 65-inch LCD TV = 1920x1080
    • Samsung 82-inch LCD TV = 1920x1080
    • Samsung 102-inch plasma TV = 1920x1080
    • JVC 48-inch LCoS RP monitor = 1920x1080
    • Sony 70-inch LCoS RPTV = 1920x1080
  • Get the picture?
gimme those pixels
Gimme Those Pixels!
  • Everyone wants HDTV imaging resolution
  • But there are trade-offs, as usual
    • Decoding and deinterlacing SD/HD video
    • Image scaling vs. native pixel resolution
    • Bandwidth and image detail
    • Accurate grayscales and color shading
  • None of these are “easy” to do!
analog video is still around
Converting SD video:

Decode composite to component

Convert interlaced to progressive

Correct for intraframe motion artifacts

Eliminate scan line artifacts

Preserve image detail without ringing

Detect and correct for different frame/field cadences (3:2, 2:3:3:2, 2:2:2:4, etc)

Analog Video Is Still Around
deinterlacing sd video
Deinterlacing SD Video
  • With 480p CRT displays, it’s not as much of an issue (resolution limits of spot size)
  • With 720p/768p FP displays, scan line and motion artifacts are more visible
  • With 1080p FP displays, problem is severe as all SD artifacts are revealed
  • Is 1080p native resolution a good thing, or is it Pandora’s Box?
deinterlacing video
Deinterlacing Video
  • 480i source deinterlacing not as intense for processors as 1080i
  • Most 1080i processors do not convert both fields, only one
  • Result: 540p scaled to 720p (fudging)
  • This trick doesn’t work when using a native 1080p display
deinterlacing video11
Deinterlacing Video

Quality deinterlacing and motion correction applied here

Inferior deinterlacing and motion correction applied here

Both frames enlarged 4X

image scaling for hd displays
Image Scaling for HD Displays
  • Two ways to do it:
    • UP in resolution (interpolation of add’l. pixels)
    • DOWN in resolution (decimation of pixels)
    • The greater the difference in total pixels, the more difficult either process becomes
  • 480p to 600p: +25%, not too bad…
  • 1080i to 600p: -56%, a pretty good leap!
  • Composite video to 1080p HD: +88% (Uh-oh…)
going up in resolution
Going Up In Resolution

480p source image

Not difficult to pull off while maintaining good image quality

600p scaled image

going down in resolution
Going Down In Resolution

1920x1080p source image

Picture detail is thrown away, but overall image quality is tolerable

1024x600p scaled image

flat out asking for trouble
Flat-Out Asking For Trouble

480i source image

You don’t realize how bad SD video looks until you try this trick!

1920x1080 scaled image

image scaling headaches
Image Scaling Headaches
  • Garbage in, garbage out
    • Noise reduction (analog, digital MPEG ‘mosquitoes’)
    • Field vs. frame conversion (1080i to 540p)
    • Color space errors (601 or 709 to RGB)
  • Higher resolution fixed-pixel projection systems clearly show scaling defects
  • Poor SD video performance is #1 cause of consumer returns on fixed-pixel TVs
bandwidth and detail problems
Bandwidth and Detail Problems
  • A little known ‘secret’: Many expensive fixed-pixel displays are short on HD bandwidth
    • Desire to save $$ on components
    • Inclusion of ‘video sharpness’ circuits
    • Obsession with edge enhancement
    • Designing display for 480p sources
  • Mostly seen on YPbPr (analog) inputs
the ideal bandwidth response
The Ideal Bandwidth Response

Full bandwidth signal processing (>18 MHz)

the sad reality19
The Sad Reality

Clipped bandwidth signal processing (<12 MHz)

i want my money back
I Want My Money Back
  • Luminance detail more important than chrominance detail
  • In MPEG, luminance samples at twice chrominance or more (4:2:2, 4:2:0, etc)
  • Clipped BW not an issue with SD displays, but a big issue with HD displays
  • With many HD displays, you are not getting the performance you paid for!
i want my money back21
I Want My Money Back
  • In a typical HD display:
    • Inferior scaling of low-rez video
    • Poor de-interlacing and motion correction
    • Poor noise reduction (digital and analog)
    • Clipped bandwidth above 12 MHz
    • Too much edge enhancement with SD + HD
  • Result: An expensive HD display no better than a cheaper SD display
grayscale color purity
Perhaps the two hardest things for any HD display to handle well

Digital systems have it tougher (PWM)

Shadow detail always difficult to render

Expansive grayscales are problematic

Industry obsessed with contrast ratio

White detail crush very common

Grayscale – Color Purity
grayscale problems
Grayscale Problems

False contouring and white crush are seen

color purity problems
Color Purity Problems
  • Color purity across HD image is a must
  • Color shifts can be caused by:
    • Poorly designed mirrors, integrators
    • Refraction in imaging devices
    • Inconsistency in color filter materials
    • Low-cost optics and lenses
    • Uneven spectral output of illuminants
projector color shifts
Projector Color Shifts

Projector was set to ‘Middle’ or ‘Normal’ WB in each case

projector color shifts26
Projector Color Shifts
  • Not as noticeable with business graphics (saturated colors go pastel)
  • More noticeable with mid/high gray tones
  • Definitely noticeable with flesh tones!
  • A difficult problem with short-arc lamps
    • Fix with filtering, but lose light
    • Move to xenon imaging? Cost issues?










contenders for the throne
Contenders for the Throne
  • Emissive - You view the light source directly
    • CRT, plasma, SED, FED, LED, O-LED
  • Transmissive - You view shuttered light
    • TFT LCD monitors, HTPS LCD projectors
  • Reflective - You view reflected light
    • DLP, LCoS and variations (D-ILA, SXRD, etc)
emissive contenders
Emissive Contenders
  • CRT (cathode-ray tube) technology the oldest and best-known variation
  • Limitations in brightness and physical size
  • Resolution always tied to brightness
  • High voltages required
  • Power consumption issues
emissive contenders32
Emissive Contenders
  • Plasma display panels (PDPs) are a step forward
  • Resolution and brightness link is broken
  • Higher native resolutions, high brightness and contrast
  • Saturated phosphors, wide viewing angles
  • Light weight, thin profile
  • Power still an issue
emissive contenders33
Emissive Contenders
  • Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a step further
  • Lower operating voltages for luminous energy
  • Thinner profile, high brightness and contrast
  • Resolution still coarse
  • High current consumption
  • Modular and durable display
emissive contenders34
Emissive Contenders
  • Organic light-emitting diodes (O-LEDs) push the envelope farther out
  • Super-thin, low-voltage technology
  • High contrast, brightness
  • Bright colors and wide viewing angles
  • Current consumption and uniformity are problems
emissive contenders35
Emissive Contenders
  • Surface-conducting Electron-emitting Displays (SEDs) have promise, but…
  • Super-thin technology with CRT-like image quality
  • High contrast, brightness
  • Bright colors and wide viewing angles
  • Can Canon and Toshiba actually deliver it?
transmissive threats
Transmissive “Threats”
  • Liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) are mature
  • Link between brightness and resolution broken
  • Low voltage technology, scalable over various sizes
  • Viewing angles and black levels are issues
  • Color filter imaging not as intense as phosphors
transmissive threats38
Transmissive “Threats”
  • High-temperature polysilicon (HTPS)
  • Enabled the portable projector market
  • Low-cost imaging technology at high resolution
  • Monochrome, requires outboard color filters
  • Questions as to durability of panels and filters
reflective challengers
Reflective Challengers
  • Digital light processing (DLP)
  • High resolutions possible
  • Efficient technology, lightweight projectors
  • Monochrome, needs color filters / wheels
  • Black levels good, high brightness / contrast
  • 100% digital system, unaffected by analog stimuli
reflective challengers41
Reflective Challengers
  • Liquid-crystal on silicon (LCoS)
  • High resolutions possible
  • Efficient technology, lightweight projection systems
  • High resolution to 4K
  • Black level / contrast issues
  • Manufacturing issues - yields
significant news 2005
Significant News - 2005
  • So Far This Year:
    • Fujitsu exits plasma and LCD fab businesses
    • The LCD – plasma “war” continues
    • LCoS fights for respectability, market share
    • HTPS projection engines strike back
    • LEDs are used as -- projection lamps?
    • “1080p” is the latest display buzzword
    • ELVs, iMods, P-OLEDs grab attention at SID
significant news 200544
Significant News - 2005
    • Falling prices, declining profit margins in both PDP and TFT LCD manufacturing to blame
    • Competitive advantage to Korean, Chinese fabs
    • Sells all but 19% of FHP interest to Hitachi
    • Sells all IP and patents outright to Hitachi
    • Sells LCD fabs, IP outright to Sharp
    • Just another OEM now…….
significant news 200545
Significant News - 2005
    • Average MSRP of 42” ED plasma TV ranges from $1500 to $2500 - ED going away in favor of HD
    • 50-inch plasma TV now well under $5K SRP
    • LCD dominates to 32”, “no man’s land” at 37” size
    • 32” LCD under $1500, 37” at $2500
    • Average 42” ED plasma sold at $50 loss in 2004
significant news 200546
Significant News - 2005
    • More companies pursuing LCoS as alternative technology to DLP (multiple sources, cheaper)
    • Yields still a big problem for all LCoS types
    • Some companies just hanging on by fingernails
    • Sony, JVC continue battles at high end (2K, 4K)
    • Push in China and Korea to build LCoS TVs
    • “1080p” seen as tipping point for LCoS
significant news 200547
Significant News - 2005
    • Sony, Panasonic, Sanyo all introduce new color correction systems
    • Dynamic iris and gamma correction (Panasonic)
    • Adoption in more 720p RPTVs (Mitsubishi)
    • .9”1920x1080 panels coming from Epson for front and rear projection
    • Front projection systems (Fujitsu, Sanyo, Barco)
significant news 200548
Significant News - 2005
    • LumiLEDs light engines (RGB stripes) now in ‘pocket’ projectors
    • Models from Mitsubishi, Samsung, BenQ, InFocus
    • Light output 30 – 50 lumens on small screens (12”)
    • Single chip DLP (800x600) designs
    • Question: Why not just use a laptop instead?
significant news 200549
Significant News - 2005
    • Industry becoming obsessed with 1080p imaging
    • Support across all display technologies
      • DMDs – 2K professional, 960x1080 consumer
      • LCoS – 1920x1080 D-ILA, SXRD, others
      • HTPS – 1920x1080 panels
      • TFT LCD – now as small as 37” diagonally
      • Plasma – 71” screens to 102” screens
    • Silicon Optix field / frame deinterlacing issues
significant news 200550
Significant News - 2005
    • Electrowetting light valve (ELV)
      • Uses oil and water
      • Simple monochrome light shutter
    • Polymer organic light-emitting diodes (P-OLEDs)
      • Colors can be fluorescent, phosphorescent
      • Ink-jet printable
    • Interferometric Modulator (IMod)
      • Bends light with refraction, reflection
the battle lines are drawn
The Battle Lines are Drawn
  • Plasma vs. LCD
    • New plasma fabs coming on-line in Korea, China
    • Plasma has edge in price across competitive sizes
      • 37” is current battleground, also 40 – 42”
      • LCD still limited in sizes above 46”
    • Materials cost lower in plasma screens
    • Color rendering still better than LCD for now
    • Popular choice as consumer TV screen
the battle lines are drawn53
The Battle Lines are Drawn
  • Plasma vs. LCD
    • “Full court press” by plasma manufacturers to correct misconceptions about panel life, burn-in, cost
    • New gas mixtures (xenon and neon) improve phosphor life and brightness
    • Plasma ‘tube’ technology may allow larger sizes
    • Caveat: Plasma technology may be reaching the limit of improvements!
pdp technology enhancements
PDP Technology Enhancements
  • Plasma Tube Structure
    • Breaks the link between glass size and imaging elements
    • Reduced costs in manufacturing
    • May allow curved screen plasma displays
    • Shown: Fujitsu tube demo
the battle lines are drawn55
The Battle Lines are Drawn
  • players / partners in PDPs:
  • Japan – Panasonic, Hitachi, Pioneer
    • Panasonic #1 WW in sales
    • May partner with Hitachi on PDP projects
    • Pioneer owns ex-NEC fabs, OEMs NEC glass
    • Hitachi now in charge of FHP factory
    • No new VC investment in plasma is likely
the battle lines are drawn56
The Battle Lines are Drawn
  • players / partners in PDPs:
  • Korea – Samsung, LG
    • Samsung #1 WW in PDP shipments (>200K/month)
    • LG and Samsung have both expanded fabs
    • Both companies make largest PDPs in world
  • China – Chungwha Picture Tube
    • Building 46-inch SD/HD panels (Mitsubishi design)
the battle lines are drawn57
The Battle Lines are Drawn
  • LCD vs. PLASMA
    • LCD is aggressively marketed across all channels
    • Many OEM partners selling into US market
    • LCD manufacturers working hard to address:
      • Viewing angles (could be better)
      • Black levels (still 10x that of best plasma)
      • Color accuracy (needs to emulate CRT gamut)
      • Motion smear
lcd technology enhancements
LCD Technology Enhancements
  • Viewing angles
    • New polarizing films being shown
    • Close to 170 degrees in any axis possible
    • Improves off-axis color and black levels
    • Scalable to any sizes
    • Shown: Nitto Denko

 New Filter  Old Filter

lcd technology enhancements59
LCD Technology Enhancements
  • Color Gamut
    • Use of LEDs expanding
    • Color-corrected CCFL and HCFL backlights
    • Hybrid LED / CCFLs also shown
    • Power savings with brighter whites
    • Shown: Philips Aptura
lcd technology enhancements60
LCD Technology Enhancements
  • Color Gamut
    • Use of LEDs expanding
    • Color-corrected CCFL and HCFL backlights
    • Hybrid LED / CCFLs exist
    • Power savings with brighter whites
    • Shown: Samsung 46” 1080p LCD TV with LED stripe backlights
lcd technology enhancements61
LCD Technology Enhancements
  • Cleaner Motion
    • Scanning backlight
    • Black frame insertion
    • Effect is similar to a motion picture shutter
    • Techniques can be combined
    • Shown: LG Philips combo scanning backlight and black frame insertion
the battle lines are drawn62
The Battle Lines are Drawn
  • Plasma OR LCD: WHO WINS?
    • LCD making huge jumps in image quality each year
    • LCD offers 1080p imaging in smaller screen sizes
    • Plasma will always be limited by brightness
    • Predictions:
      • Plasma migrates to consumer TV market on lower price, competes with microdisplay RPTV
      • LCD captures 37-inch “battleground” in 2005, becomes display of choice for DS, pro AV channels to 42 inches
the battle lines are drawn63
The Battle Lines are Drawn
  • DLP vs. LCOS:
    • DLP now shipping in two 1080p variations
      • 2048x1080 for digital cinema, large venue
      • 960x1080 for consumer RPTVs, uses “wobbulation”
    • LCoS panels all ship with full 2K resolution
      • Consumer RPTVs (JVC, Sony, eLCOS, LG)
      • Professional monitors (JVC)
      • Front projectors (Sony, JVC, Canon)
dlp advancements
DLP Advancements
  • More DLP at lower cost:
    • 1080p monitors
    • Uses single-chip engine
    • Expanded multi-segment color wheels with faster sequencing
    • Improved light sources and color correction
    • Shown: Samsung 70-inch 1080p DLP RPTV
lcos advancements
LCoS Advancements
  • Expanded use of LCOS:
    • 1080p monitors
    • Uses three-panel engine
    • Dichroic filters for wide color gamut
    • No sequential color wheels or scanning
    • Xenon light source
    • Shown: JVC 48-inch D-ILA reference monitor
the battle lines are drawn66
The Battle Lines are Drawn
    • DLP yields are typically better than LCoS
    • More DLP product in production – it’s mainstream
    • LCoS has potentially lower costs, no IP issues
    • Many Asian manufacturers entering LCoS business
    • Predictions:
      • LCoS needs more time before significant penetration
      • DLP will rule the lower-price “roost” for several years
the battle lines are drawn67
The Battle Lines are Drawn
  • DLP vs. HTPS LCD:
    • DLP has achieved 2K resolution, but only ‘full’ 2K with professional displays
    • HTPS LCD has achieved full 2K resolution with .9” panels for all types of displays
    • DLP limited to single-chip with color wheel in smaller projection engines
    • HTPS LCD is three-chip with color filters in all projection engines
htps lcd advancements
HTPS LCD Advancements
  • Visual Quality Issues:
    • ‘Screen door’ effect is being minimized
    • Lower black levels due to dynamic irising of content
    • Color gamut accuracy is greatly improved
    • Shown: Panasonic PT-AE700U front LCD projector
the battle lines are drawn69
The Battle Lines are Drawn
    • HTPS LCD improvements for 2005 are dramatic!
    • HTPS LCD still has price advantage
      • Typical 720p LCD projector is $2500
      • Lowest-cost 720p DLP projector is $4500
    • Predictions:
      • LCD remains strong, affordable projection technology
      • DLP prices must drop to compete in 720p skew
      • Issues with full 1080p imaging will surface

Oh, and By The Way…

Better Living Through Displays?

oh and by the way
Oh, and By the Way….
  • On-board OS
    • Integral piece of a network
    • Faster LANs allow remote file access
    • Maintenance and status updates enabled
    • Diagnose and fix many ‘operator error’ issues
oh and by the way72
Oh, and By the Way….
  • 100% digital video interfaces
    • Smart set-up between monitor and display card or video source
    • Best match to pixel resolution and refresh rate
    • DVI for pro markets
    • HDMI for consumer
oh and by the way73
Oh, and By the Way….
  • Improved on-board video processing
    • More functions on one chip set
    • Scaling, de-interlacing, motion correction, cadence correction
    • Enables a true resolution-independent display
oh and by the way74
Oh, and By the Way…
  • Power Saving Modes
    • Larger displays consume lots of electricity!
    • Need to improve luminous efficiency (lumens/watt or nits/watt)
    • Smart backlights
    • Pulsed backlights
    • Low power modes
peter h putman cts president roam consulting inc founder hdtvexpert com75
Peter H. Putman, CTS

President, ROAM Consulting Inc.


Trends In Display TechnologiesThe Wild Ride Continues…