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Computer Hardware

Computer Hardware

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Computer Hardware

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  1. Module II – Information Technologies Computer Hardware

  2. Learning Objectives • Major types, trends, and uses of microcomputer, midrange and mainframe computer systems • The major technologies and uses of computer peripherals for input, output, and storage • Identify and give examples of the components and functions of a computer system • Identify the computer systems and peripherals you would acquire or recommend for a business of your choice, and explain the reasons for your selections.

  3. End User andEnterprise Computing Section I Types of Computer Systems Use of a Variety of Designs Real World Case 1… Progressive Insurance and UniFirst Corp: The Case for Mobile Computing Systems Click to go to Case 1

  4. Types of Computers Computer System Categories • Mainframe Computers • Midrange Computers • Microcomputers • Client-Server Networks • Information Appliances

  5. Microcomputer Systems Personal Computer (PC) Professional Workstations Multiuser Systems Desktop Systems Laptops Workstation Computers Network Servers

  6. Microcomputer Systems Boeing, Monster.Com, and Others: Corporate PC Criteria • Solid Performance at a Reasonable Price • Operating System Ready • Connectivity

  7. Network Computers Used by Workers in Networks Sealed Low-Cost Systems Network Microcomputers No or Minimal Disk Storage Dependent Upon Internet or Intranets for Operations Standardization Reduced Costs of Maintenance and Upgrades

  8. Information Appliances Smart Gadgets Cellular Phones and Pagers Hand-Held PCs Web-Based Games Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)

  9. Computer Terminals Dumb Terminals Intelligent Terminals Network Terminals • Windows Terminals • Internet Terminals Transaction Terminals • ATM Machines • POS Terminals

  10. Midrange Systems High-End Network Servers Process Business Applications Less Costly to Busy and Maintain that Mainframes Scientific Research Engineering Analysis Process Monitoring and Control CAD Systems Front-End to Mainframes

  11. Midrange Systems Los Alamos Laboratory and Blackboard, Inc.: Moving to Blade Servers • Rack System Slide-Ins • 30 – 50% Lower Cost • Smaller Size, Less Power Use • Reduced Cabling • Don’t Need Environmental Requirements • No Raised Flooring

  12. Mainframe Systems Large, Fast, and Powerful Hundreds of Millions of Instructions per Second (MIPS) Large Primary Storage Superservers for Large Client/Server Networks Data Warehousing and Mining Electronic Commerce Applications

  13. Supercomputer Systems Extremely Powerful Systems Large-Scale Data Mining Parallel Processing Floating Point Decimal Operations – • Billions - Gigaflops • Trillions - Teraflops Symmetric Multiprocessing – SMP Minisupercomputers

  14. The Computer System Concept Central Processing Unit Control Unit Arithmetic Logic Unit Input Devices Output Devices System Bus Special Purpose Processors Primary Storage Memory Cache Memory • Visual Display Unit • Printer • Audio-Response • Physical Control Devices, etc. • Keyboard • Mouse • Touch Screen • Optical-Scanner • Voice Recognition • etc. Secondary Storage Devices Magnetic Disk Tape Units Optical Disks, etc.

  15. Computer Processing Speeds Thousandths – Milliseconds Millionths – Microseconds Billionths – Nanoseconds Trillionths – Picoseconds MIPS Megahertz (MHz) Gigahertz (GHz) Internal Clock Registers and Caches

  16. Input - Output and Storage Technologies Section II Using the Right Peripherals Value of Consolidating Operations Real World Case 2… Delta and Northwest Airlines: The Business Value of Customer Self-Service Kiosks Click to go to Case 2

  17. Peripheral Devices Online vs. Offline Devices Natural User Interface Pointing Devices • Graphical User Interface (GUI) • Electronic Mouse • Trackball • Pointing Stick • Touchpad • Touch Screens

  18. Pen-Based Computing Tablet PCs PDAs Digitizer Pens Graphics Tablets

  19. Speech Recognition Systems Discrete Speech Recognition Continuous Speech Recognition (CSR) Training Time • Dragon Naturally Speaking • IBM’s Via Voice Speaker Independent Systems Voice Messaging Computers

  20. Optical Scanning Document Management Flatbed Scanners Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Wands and Bar Coding Uniform Product Code (UPC)

  21. Other Input Technologies Magnetic Stripe Smart Cards Digital Cameras Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)

  22. Output Technologies Voice Response Video Output • Video Monitor • Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) • Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) • Flat-Panel TVs • Plasma Display Panels

  23. Printed Output Inkjet Printers Laser Printers Color Laser Printers Multifunction Inkjet Printers

  24. Storage Trade-offs Primary Storage Semi- conductor Memory Access Speed Increases Storage Capacity Decreases Magnetic Disks Cost per Bit Increases Optical Disks Secondary Storage Magnetic Tape

  25. Computer Storage Binary Representation Bit Byte Kilobytes (KB) - k Megabytes (MB) Gigabytes (GB) Terabytes (TB) Petabytes – Over 1 Quadrillion Bytes

  26. Computer Storage Direct Access • Random Access (RAM) • Direct Access Storage Devices (DASD) Sequential Access Semiconductor Memory • RAM Memory – Random Access • ROM Memory – Read Only

  27. A B C D E Computer Storage Sequential Access Storage Device Direct Access Storage Device Read/Write Head Read/Write Head C A E D B

  28. Magnetic Storage Floppy Disks Hard Disk Drives RAID Storage Magnetic Tapes

  29. Optical Disks CD-ROM CD-R and CD-RW CD-RW/DVD DVD-ROM Drive DVD-R DVD-RW Image Processing

  30. Summary • Three Major Types of Computer Systems • Microcomputer • Midrange Systems • Mainframe Systems

  31. Summary 2. Microcomputers are Used as Personal Computers, Network Computers, Personal Digital Assistants, Technical Workstations, and Information Appliances.

  32. Summary 3. Midrange Systems are used for Many Multiuser Business Data Processing and Scientific Applications. 4. Mainframe Systems are Larger and More Powerful than Midrange Systems, Have More Memory, and Support More Users and Peripheral Devices, and High Volumes of Data.

  33. Summary 5. Computer Systems Perform Input, Processing, Output, Storage, and Control Functions. 6. Hardware Consists of Input and Output Devices, a Central Processing Unit, Primary and Secondary Storage Devices.

  34. Summary 7. Supercomputers are a Special Category of Extremely Powerful Mainframe Systems Designed for Massive Computational Assignments. 8. Peripheral Devices are used for a Wide Array of Input, Output, and Storage Applications.

  35. Binary Representation Central Processing Unit (CPU) Computer System Computer Terminal Digital Cameras Direct Access Generations of Computing Information Appliance Laptop Computer Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) KEY TERMS

  36. Magnetic Disk Storage - Floppy Disk - Hard Disk - RAID Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) Magnetic Stripe Magnetic Tape Mainframe Computer Microcomputer Microprocessor Midrange Computer Minicomputer KEY TERMS

  37. Network Computer NetPC Network Server Network Terminal Offline / Online Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Optical Disk Storage - CD-ROM - CD-R - CD-RW - DVD - WORM Disk Optical Scanning KEY TERMS

  38. Pen-Based Computing Peripheral Devices Personal Digital Assistant Pointing Devices Electronic Mouse - Pointing Stick Touchpad - Trackball Primary Storage Printers Secondary Storage Semiconductor Memory - RAM - ROM KEY TERMS

  39. Sequential Access Smart Cards Speech Recognition Storage Capacity Elements - Bit - Byte - Kilobyte (K or KB) - Megabyte (MB) - Gigabyte (GB) - Terabyte (TB) Storage Media Trade-offs Supercomputer KEY TERMS

  40. Time Elements - Millisecond - Microsecond - Nanosecond - Picosecond Touch-Sensitive Screen Trends in Computers Video Output Volatility Wand Workstation KEY TERMS

  41. Optional Case Studies Real World Case 1 Progressive Insurance and UniFirst Corp: The Case for Mobile Computing Systems Click to go to Case 1 Real World Case 2 Delta and Northwest Airlines: The Business Value of Customer Self-Service Kiosks Click to go to Case 2 Real World Case 3 Nappi Distributors and Old Dominion Freight Line: The Business Value of Wireless Handhelds Click to go to Case 3 Real World Case 4 Wisconsin Physicians Service and Winnebago: Moving to Linux on the Mainframe Click to go to Case 4

  42. Next... Computer Software Chapter 4

  43. Progressive Insurance andUniFirst Corp: The Case for Mobile Computing Systems Case 1 1- What are the business benefits and limitations of Progressive’s IRV system and the UniFirst PDA system? Return to Chapter 3 Return to Cases Page

  44. Benefits would include: A competitive edge in providing fast claims service. Improved customer relations. More productive claims reps. Claims settled in less time. Progressive Insurance andUniFirst Corp: The Case for Mobile Computing Systems Case 1 Progressive’s IRV system

  45. Limitations would include: All necessary information to settle the claim may not be available to the claims reps and settlements may be incorrect. Reduced data verification by company supervisory staff may lead to a higher error occurrence of incorrect claims settlements. Progressive Insurance andUniFirst Corp: The Case for Mobile Computing Systems Case 1 Progressive’s IRV system

  46. Benefits would include: Information provided to field sales professionals to support their sales and service activities in real time. Information provided to sales professionals in the field to assist in follow-ups. Lower costs Progressive Insurance andUniFirst Corp: The Case for Mobile Computing Systems Case 1 UniFirst PDA system

  47. Benefits would include: Increased revenues. Reduction of number of employees – data entry. Reduction in past-due invoices. Managers can create calendars, prioritize accounts and help the reps sell. Progressive Insurance andUniFirst Corp: The Case for Mobile Computing Systems Case 1 UniFirst PDA system

  48. Limitations would include: PDA technology must be used by “people who often shun the stuff.” Verification of input data is lost by the elimination of data input employees. Sales reps are responsible for data input accuracy. IT improvements limited to the business processes and have not been made to differentiate UniFirst from competition. Progressive Insurance andUniFirst Corp: The Case for Mobile Computing Systems Case 1 UniFirst PDA system

  49. Progressive Insurance andUniFirst Corp: The Case for Mobile Computing Systems Case 1 2- What computer system technologies could Progressive add to improve the business value of their IRV program? Why?

  50. Limitations would include: PDA technology must be used by “people who often shun the stuff.” Verification of input data is lost by the elimination of data input employees. Sales reps are responsible for data input accuracy. IT improvements limited to the business processes and have not been made to differentiate UniFirst from competition. Progressive Insurance andUniFirst Corp: The Case for Mobile Computing Systems Case 1 Discussion Points Include: