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Finish up APA style Ethics

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  1. Finish up APA styleEthics Psych 231: Research Methods in Psychology

  2. Quiz 4: Due Fri. Sept. 16 (by midnight) • Exam 1: on Monday • Mixture of multiple choice and short answer • University college writing help: • http://www.ucollege.ilstu.edu/tutoring/writing/ • Online CITI ethics training due week 5 • http://psychology.illinoisstate.edu/jccutti/psych231/f16/fall2016ethics.html • Exam 1 Review Sessions: • Thursday DEG 19 5:30-6:30 • Friday DEG 13 2-3 Announcements

  3. The basic parts of a research article: • Abstract • Body • Introduction • Methods • Participants • Materials/Apparatus • Design • Procedure • Results • Discussion • References • The rest • Authors Notes, Footnotes, Tables, Figures & Captions APA style: Parts of a research report

  4. Method - tells the reader exactly what was done • Enough detail that the reader could actually replicate the study. (video | video) • Subsections: • Participants - Who were the data collected from? • How many? Where they were selected from? Any special selection requirements? Details about those who did not complete the experiment • Apparatus/ Materials - What was used to conduct the study? • Design • Suggested if you have a complex experimental design, often combined with Materials section • Procedure • What did each participant do? Other details, including the operational levels of your IV(s) and DV(s), counterbalancing, etc. • The basic parts of a research article: Body

  5. Method - tells the reader exactly what was done • Reading checklist 1 a) Is your method better than theirs? b) Does the authors method actually test the hypotheses? c) What are the independent, dependent, and control variables? 2) Based on what the authors did, what results do YOU expect? • Writing checklist • Is it clear why the procedures were selected? • Are any assumptions explicit and defended? • Is the level of detail sufficient for replication? • The basic parts of a research article : Body

  6. Results (state the results, but do not interpret them here)(video | video) • Verbal statement of results • Tables and figures • These get referred to in the text, but actually get put into their own sections at the end of the manuscript • Statistical Outcomes • Means, standard deviations, t-tests, ANOVAs, correlations, etc. Body

  7. Results (state the results but do not interpret them here) • Reading checklist 1) Did the author get unexpected results? 2 a) How does the author interpret the results? b) How would YOU interpret the results? c) What implications would YOU draw from these results? • Writing checklist • Is it clear how the hypotheses are tested by the analyses? • Would a graph or table help clarify the results? • What questions might the reader still have, and how could I answer them in this section? Body

  8. Discussion (interpret the results) • Relationship between purpose and results • Theoretical (or methodological) contribution • Implications • Future directions (optional) • Reading checklist • 1 a) Does YOUR interpretation or the authors' interpretation best represent the data? • b) Do you or the author draw the most sensible implications and conclusions? • Writing checklist • Have you stated your most convincing argument? • Do the conclusions follow straightforwardly from the results? Body

  9. References (video| video) • Author’s name • Year • Title of work • Publication information • Journal • Issue • Pages • Footnotes • Tables • Figures Adolescent Depression 29 References Barnett, P. A., & Gotlib, I. H. (1988). Psychosocial functioning and depression: Distinguishing among antecedents, concomitants, and consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 104, 97-126. Beck, A. T. (1978). Beck Depression Inventory. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation. Benoit, D., Vidovic, D., & Roman, J. (1991, April). Transmission of attachment across three generations. Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Boston. Benoit, D., Zeanah, C. H., & Barton, M. L. (1989). Maternal attachment disturbances in failure to thrive. Infant Mental Health Journal, 3, 185-202. Benoit, D., Zeanah, C. H., Boucher, C., & Minde, K. (1989). Sleep disorders in early childhood: Association with insecure maternal attachment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 86-93. When something odd comes up, don’t guess. Look it up! The rest

  10. These are used to supplement the text. • To make a point clearer for the reader. • Typically used for: • The design • Examples of stimuli • Patterns of results Figures and tables

  11. Clarity • Logic of the argument is clear • How are pieces related, clear transitions between paragraphs • Acknowledge the work of others (avoid plagiarism) • Appropriate use of headings • Correct citing and references • Good grammar • Active (preferred) vs. Passive voice (avoid) • Active: Summers and Jordan (2009) hypothesized that speakers use to much passive voice • Passive: It was hypothesized by Summers and Jordan (2009) that speakers use to much passive voice • Avoid biased language Checklist - things to watch for

  12. Ethics – people should be treated as ends not means Ethics

  13. Two basic categories of ethical concerns: • Need to consider the rights of our participants in our research • Need to behave ethically as scientists and practitioners Ethical Responsibilities in Research

  14. Two basic categories of ethical concerns: • Need to consider the rights of our participants in our research • Need to behave ethically as scientists and practitioners Ethical Responsibilities in Research

  15. For the most part the researcher has the power • You know what is going to be done to the participants • Participants may feel like they have to do it • Consider the Milgram (1963) study | video • Demonstrated how far people may go to obey authorities • This study itself exemplifies the need for strict rules of ethics Using humans in research

  16. Consider ethics at each step • Does the topic/idea for the research have some ethical issues surrounding it? • How are participants selected? • What methods may be used on the participant population? • What measurement techniques will be used? • What design is appropriate? • How are the data analyzed? • How are the results reported? Ethical Responsibilities in Research

  17. APA’s code of ethics http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx

  18. 5 General Principles (& many ethical standards) • Beneficence & Non-maleficence • Protection from harm, Cost/Benefits analysis, Confidentiality • Fidelity & Responsibility • Uphold professional and scientific standards of contact • Integrity • Honesty and accuracy in science • Justice • Freedom from coercion • Respect for people’s rights and dignity • Basic courtesy, Informed consent, Debriefing, Avoid deception APA’s code of ethics http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx

  19. Information to allow a person to decide if they want to participate (sample in lab manual pgs 26-27) • Basic purpose of the study • Participation is voluntary • Risks involved • Benefits involved • Rights to refuse or terminate participation • Assent - guardians if participants are not competent • e.g., children, developmentally disabled people Informed consent

  20. Types • Passive deception • Withholding information about the study • Active deception • Deliberately misleading participants • Avoid it when possible • Consider alternatives to deception • Role-playing • When not possible to avoid • Make sure that you are up front with all possible risks • Potential results must be worth it • Must debrief participants as soon as possible (either right after participation or as soon as project is over) Using deception in research

  21. Costs: all potential risks to the participants • Physical harm • Psychological harm • Loss of confidentiality • Benefits: the “good” outcomes • Direct benefits to participants • Benefits to knowledge base • Benefits to world at large Costs/Benefits analysis

  22. Institutional Review Board • IRB Criteria • Minimize risk • Benefits > Risks • Equal opportunity sampling • Informed consent • Documentation of consent • Data monitoring • Privacy & Confidentiality Monitoring of ethics

  23. Two basic categories of ethical concerns: • Need to consider the rights of our participants in our research • Need to behave ethically as scientists and practitioners For Fun: Watch and count how many violations you see Ethical Responsibilities in Research

  24. Two basic categories of ethical concerns: • Need to consider the rights of our participants in our research • Need to behave ethically as scientists and practitioners Ethical Responsibilities in Research

  25. Fraud prevention • Replication – repeat a research study to validate results • Peer Review – critical analysis of research by peers in the same area • Plagiarism – taking credit for another’s work or ideas • Avoided by citing the ideas or words of others • Two basic categories of ethical concerns: • Need to consider the rights of our participants in our research • Need to behave ethically as scientists and practitioners (Integrity, Fidelity & Responsibility) Scientific Integrity

  26. Dirty tricks (this will get you thrown out) • Questionable tricks (these are a little fuzzier, but be wary) • Neat tricks (accepted as okay, and sometimes necessary) Ethics in Science Quiz Ethical responsibility to science

  27. Dirty tricks • Questionable tricks • Neat tricks • Fabrication of results • Little or no attempt to minimize demand biases • Reformulating your theory as you go • Falsifying credentials • Plagiarism • Little or no attempt to minimize confounds • Deliberately hiding (significant) errors in published work • Little or no attempt to minimize demand characteristics Ethics in Science Quiz DT QT NT DT DT QT DT QT Ethical responsibility to science

  28. Dirty tricks • Questionable tricks • Neat tricks • Throwing out data • Reorganizing order of report of experiments • Violations of underlying statistical assumptions • Strategic graphing of the data • Duplicate publications (presented as new) • Selective reporting of the results • Leaving out some bad experiments (not bad results) Ethics in Science Quiz QT or DT depends reason for throwing out NT QT QT DT QT NT Ethical responsibility to science

  29. Exam 1: 10% of final grade • Short answer & multiple choice • Covers – lectures, textbook, lab material • Textbook Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 Exam 1