Word Up!* ESL + Linguistics = Learning Community with an “Interlanguage” Focus *exclamation – I understand you; I agree with you. A colloquial phrase originating from within the African-American community… often shortened to simply “Word!”
Kapi’olani Community CollegeHonolulu, Hawai’iDepartment of Languages, Linguistics & Literature Susan Banner Inouye, Linguistics Shawn Ford, ESL Miho Yamanouchi, Student
study Linguistics concepts develop academic English writing skills study Second Language Acquisition concepts work on shared assignments and projects throughout the semester examine individual language development patterns and needs for future language development Content of Word Up Learning Community
Two teachers Two disciplines Two consecutive class periods twice a week Snack schedule Two course grades One coordinated syllabus Coordinated in-class activities, readings, lectures Several integrated assignments Some separate assignments Learning Community Logistics
Today’s PresentationShrinky Dink® version of a semester in Word Up • Participants will assume role of students • “Students” will learn about Interlanguage • “Students” will learn some Linguistics • “Students” will observe their own language • “Students” will analyze their own language • “Students” will apply theory to themselves • “Students” will present results & reflect
Contents of Packets • Outline of Today’s Presentation • Word Up Syllabus (full version available upon request) • Your Learner Profile • Your Interlanguage Phonology Kit: • two index cards • L1 synopsis • L1 wordlist • L2 synopsis • Generalization Form • Answer Key • Evaluation Form
Interlanguage Phonology Project:In the real Word Up, students write a paper which includes primary data collection & library research • Your Interlanguage Phonology Kit: • two index cards (simulates data elicitation) • L1 synopsis (simulates research) • L1 wordlist (simulates collected data) • L2 synopsis (simulates research) • Generalization Form (simulates polished paper) • Answer Key (real students don’t have one!)
Instructions • Take 5 minutes right now to introduce yourselves to your group-members, assuming the identity of your student profile • Red: Ahn • Blue: Natsuko • Yellow: Richard • White: DK
Students learn about Interlanguage through readings, lectures, discussions, writing activities, vocab quizzes Students learn about Linguistics through textbook readings, homework and in-class activities, writing activities, quizzes In the Word Up Learning Community
Characterization: Approximated version of L2 Some features of L1 Linguistic innovations Development: Language transfer Overgeneralization Simplification Fossilization An interlanguage is an individual learner language that is developed by a person who is in the process of learning a second language (L2)(lecture simulates condensed course content)
The ILP and ESL Learning: Justification • Awareness-raising • Schmidt, R. (1990) The Role of Consciousness in Second Language Learning. • Schmidt, R. (1993) Awareness and second language acquisition. • Goal-setting • Celce-Murcia, M., Brinton, D., & Goodwin, J. (1996). Teaching pronunciation: Reference for teachers of English to speakers of other languages. • Learner autonomy • Little, D., Ridley, J., & Ushioda, E., 2002. Towards Greater Autonomy in the Foreign Language Classroom.
Factors that affect interlanguage development(lecture simulates condensed course content) • Transfer of L1 phonology into the L2 • Learner’s overall level of language proficiency • Learner’s stage and duration of fossilization • Markedness theory • Glossary: phonology = pronunciation; fossilization= frozen development; markedness = how common/uncommon a feature is in the world’s languages
Transfer of L1 Phonology(lecture simulates condensed course content) • Transfer of single sounds • Transfer of syllable structure • Transfer of stress, intonation, etc.
Languages differ in how they sound for a couple of reasons(lecture simulates condensed course content) • L1 uses different consonants & vowels than L2, though there may be some sounds in common • L1 organizes its sounds into syllables and words differently from L2
Example: Hawaiian vs. English(lecture simulates condensed course content) • Hawaiian has only 13 sounds • 5 vowels: i, e, a, o, u • 8 consonants: p, k, m, n, l, w, h, ʔ • American English has around 40 sounds • 15 vowels • 25 consonants
Sound Substitution(lecture simulates condensed course content) • book [bʊk] [puke] • [b] substituted with [p] • sister [sɪstər] [tita] • [s] substituted with [t]
Hawaiian Syllable Structure(lecture simulates condensed course content) • Hawaiian allows only • CV: ka ‘the’, puka ‘hole’, ʔaʔi ‘neck’ • V: i ‘object marker’ • CVV: kai ‘sea’, pau ‘finished’ • English allows • CV, CVV, CCV, CCVCC, CCCVCCC, etc go, boy, stay, stand, strengths [strɛŋkθ]
Syllable Structure Transfer(lecture simulates condensed course content) • Consonant Clusters separated by an inserted vowel: plaid [plæd] [palaka] • Or Vowel Inserted after Word-Final Consonant book [bʊk] [puke] • Or Final Consonant deleted sister [sɪstər] [tita] • Or Cluster Simplified sister [sɪstər] [tita]
Generalizations for Hawaiian (L1) to English (L2)(lecture simulates condensed course content) • Sounds: • Because there is no b, d, s in Hawaiian, p, k are substituted • Syllables: • Because only (C)V(V) allowed, clusters are resolved in various ways
Your goal as a student in the Word Up course is to analyze your own interlanguage phonology by…
Applying linguistics & interlanguage material to your own data…(lecture simulates students’ Interlanguage Phonology Project [ILP]) • Collecting data on yourself (partner will transcribe you) • Analyzing your pronunciation data • Reporting on your pronunciation • Reflecting on how this might impact your learning strategies for English
Instructions(lecture simulates data elicitation)(5 minutes) • Turn to your partner and take turns transcribing each other’s wordlists • Exchange Index Card 1 with a partner • Index Card 1 (transcriber’s prompt list) • Spell the words the way your partner says them • Index Card 2 (speaker’s pronunciation guide) • Pronounce the words the way you see them spelled • Give Index Card 1 back to its owner
Instructions(simulates students’ research & writing) (15 minutes) • Regroup and join other “students” with the same identity (reds, blues, yellows, whites) • Together examine your L1 phonology synopsis and L1 pronunciation data • Try to find some generalizations about sound substitutions and syllable structure resolutions • Write your results on Generalization Form • Choose a spokesperson to share your findings
Japanese Sounds Syllables Korean Sounds Syllables Vietnamese Sounds Syllables Cantonese Sounds Syllables Student Presentations
How Interlanguage Phonology Project affects my learning of English • Understand my own tendencies -awareness raising • Understand phonological progress in English -goal setting • Improve my pronunciation -acquisition
My Thoughts about Learning Community • Two instructors in the same classroom • More focus on topic • Deeper learning about topic • Application of learning to writing
Reflections on ESL and Linguistics Learning Community • “Even though I had difficulty with expressing my opinion in writing before, it could be better as writing critique essay and analysis essay.” • “Everything that I learned applied to my English background and from now on.” • “I learned about myself a lot because English is part of myself.”
Word Up! ESL and Linguistics Learning Community
References • Chan, Alice & David C.S. Li.2000. English and Cantonese Phonology in Contrast : Explaining Cantonese ESL Learners’ English Pronunciation Problems. Language, Culture and Curriculum. Vol. 13, No. 1, 2000. • Comrie, Bernard. 1990. The World’s Major Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press. • Ford, Shawn. 2001. Tutoring Project Final Paper. Unpublished ms. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Manoa. • Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., & N. Hyams. 2003. An Introduction to Language. 7th ed. Boston: Thomson Heinle. • Japanese Phonology. 13, Feb 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_phonology. Accessed 3/5/2006.
References, cont’d • Kim, Hyouk-Keun. 1999.Interlanguage Phonology of Korean Learners of English. http://odin.prohosting.com/hkkim/cgi-bin/kaeps/il_phon.htm. Accessed: 03/01/2006 Korean Language. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_language. Accessed: 9/15/2005. • Ladefoged, Peter and Maddieson, Ian. UCLA Phonetics Lab Data: Korean. http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandConsonants/appendix/languages/korean/korean.html. Accessed 3/8/2006 • Nilsen, D. & Nilsen A. 1973. Pronunciation Contrasts in English. New York: Regents Publishing Co., Inc.
References, cont’d • O’Grady, W., Archibald, J. Aronoff, M. & J. Rees-Miller. 2001. Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction. 4th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s. • Taiffalo. 2001. Sound System in Vietnamese. http://www.de-han.ord/ vietname/chuliau/lunsoat/sound/2.htm. Accessed: 9/15/05. • Vietnamese Phonology. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Vietnamese_phonology#Syllable_and_phonotactics. Accessed: 03/01/2006. • Weinberger, Steven H. Fall, 2005. Native Phonetic Inventory: Cantonese. George Mason University. <http://accent.gmu.edu/browse_native.php?function=detail&languageid=13>. Accessed March 14, 2006.
Mahalo! • For more information, please contact Susan Inouye [firstname.lastname@example.org] or Shawn Ford [email@example.com]. • For the student perspective contact Miho Yamanouchi [firstname.lastname@example.org]
Mahalo! • Brought to you by • Kapi’olani Community College: Dept. of Languages, Linguistics & Literature • KapCC Faculty Development Fund • KapCC Learning Communities Institute • KapCC Planning & Grants Mgt Office