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SCHOOL OF DENTAL MEDICINE UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB Lidija Štefić ENGLISH IN DENTAL MEDICINE I DERIVATION COMPOUNDING CONVERSION BORROWING WORD FORMATION IN ENGLISH DERIVATION AFFIXATION AFFIXES COMBINING WORD SUFFIXES PREFIXES ROOT (STEM) BASIC WORD STRUCTURE Word root :

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slide1

SCHOOL OF DENTAL MEDICINE

UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Lidija Štefić

ENGLISH IN DENTAL MEDICINE I

slide2

DERIVATION

COMPOUNDING

CONVERSION

BORROWING

WORD FORMATION IN ENGLISH

slide3

DERIVATION

AFFIXATION

AFFIXES

COMBINING

WORD

SUFFIXES

PREFIXES

ROOT (STEM)

slide4

BASIC WORD STRUCTURE

Word root:

gingiv/al

root (gums)

Suffix:

gingiv/itis

suffix (inflammation)

Prefix::

sub/gingiv/al

prefix (below)

Combining word::

electr/o/cardi/o/gram

root

suffix

prefix

combining vowel

slide5

DERIVE FROM

Latin

Greek

SUFFIXES IN DENTAL MEDICINE

a word added at the end of a word or word base (root)

to change its meaning.

slide16

SUFFIXES: ADJECTIVE ENDINGS

The adjective endings that mean “pertaining to” are:

slide18

DERIVE FROM

Latin

Greek

PREFIXES IN DENTAL MEDICINE

at the beginning of a word

slide38

ANATOMY

Anatomy (from the Greekἀνατομία anatomia, from ἀνατέμνειν ana:

separate, apart from, and temnein, to cut up, cut open)

is a branch of biology

It is the study of exernal and internal structures

and the physical realationships

between body parts

Microscopic

-cytology

-histology

Macroscopic (gross)

-surface

-regional

systemic

slide39

HYSTORY OF ANATOMY

Hippocrates of Kos(Greek: Ἱπποκράτης)

Claudius Aelius Galenus

(AD 129 – 200)

ca. 460 BC - ca. 370 BC

slide40

Canon of Medicine

Ibn al-Nafis

1213-1288

1484

slide41

Leonardo da Vinci

Anatomy Lesson of dr.Nicolaes Tulp

1632

Rembrandt

1606 - 1669

1452 - 1519

slide43

Robert Hooke’s microscope

The scanning electron microscope (SEM)

slide44

Anatomy employs two chief methods of study - the systemic and

topographic.In the former the body is regarded as consisting of systems

and organs.

The divisions of systemic anatomy are:

slide45

Dental medicine takes into consideration other branches of systemic

anatomy such as : embriology,genetics,endocrinology and dermatology.

Pathological anatomy is the study of diseased organs.

sections of normal anatomy applied to various purposes receive

special namessuch as

medical,surgical, ginaecological, artistic and superficial anatomy

slide46

Structural Organisation of the Body

Organs, Systems

Body Cavities

slide47

Organs and Systems

Tissues  Patterns  Various Organs

Organs = several kinds of tissue

viscera (lat.) = internal organs (sing. viscus)

Systems = groups of organs working together and performing complex functions

slide48

Gastrointestinal System

  • Mouth, pharynx,
  • oesophagus, stomach,
  • intestines
  • (small and large),
  • liver, gallbladder, pancreas
slide49

Excretory System

Kidneys, ureters,

urinary bladder,

urethra

slide50

Respiratory System

Nose, pharynx, larynx,

trachea, bronchial

tubes, lungs

slide51

Reproductive System

Female: Ovaries,

fallopian tubes,

uterus, vagina,

mammary glands

slide52

Reproductive System

Male: testes

and associated tubes,

urethra, penis,

prostate gland

slide53

Endocrine System

Thyroid gland,

pituitary gland, sex glands,

adrenal glands,

pancreas,

parathyroid glands,

pineal gland, thymus gland

slide54

Nervous System

Brain, spinal cord,

nerves, and collection

of nerves

slide55

Cardiovascular System

Heart, blood vessels

(arteries, veins and

capillaries),

lymphatic vessels

and nodes,

spleen, thymus gland

slide57

Skeletal System

Bones and joints

(articulations)

slide58

Integumentary System

Skin, hair, nails and

associated glands

(sweat or sudoriferous

and sebaceous

or oil glands)

slide59

Body Cavities

Body cavity = space

within the body

containing the

internal organs (viscera).

slide61

Thoracic Cavity

  • Subdivided into:
    • -Pleural Cavities:
    • area surrounding the lungs
    • -The Mediastinum: area between the lungs; contains heart, aorta, trachea, oesophagus, and thymus gland
slide62

Abdominal Cavity

Stomach, small and large

intestines, spleen, liver,

gallbladder, pancreas,

kidneys

Surrounded by

peritoneum

slide63

Pelvic Cavity

Urinary bladder,

urethra, ureters;

uterus and vagina

in the female

slide64

Spinal Cavity

Spinal cord and

nerves of the spinal

cord

slide65

Glossary

tissue = tkivo

cavity = šupljina

gallbladder = žučni mjehur

pancreas = gušterača

spleen = slezena

thymus gland = prsna žlijezda

thyroid gland = štitnjača

slide66

MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

  • BONES
  • JOINTS
  • MUSCLES
slide68

Bones are complete organs, composed

of connective tissue called osseous tissue

Dense connective tissue includes the

cartilage and bone

It consists of osteocytes surrounded by

intercellular substance filled with

calcium salts

slide69

It is composed of an outer hard layer and an inner,spongy core.

Compact tissue- forms the outer layer of bones, it is arranged in concentric layers with a hollow centre which carries blood vessels and nerves.

slide70

The inner spongy core- forms the inside of bones, it has the yellow and red bone marrow.

- the yellow bone marrow stores fat cells (leucocytes).

- the red bone marrow contains red cells (erythrocytes).

slide71

External surface of bone is covered by

periosteum- it has the function

of feeding the bone

slide72

Several hormones regulate the activity of the bone cell

  • Osteoblasts- they are immature
  • osteocytes which produce the bony tissue
  • that replaces cartilage during ossification
slide73

2) Osteoclasts- they reabsorb bony tissue thus enlarging the inner bone cavity so that the bone does not become overly thick and heavy

- parathyroid gland stimulates osteoclasts to remove bone and to stimulate osteoblasts to build up the bone

slide74

It secretes a hormone to release

calcium from bone, bones become weakened

due to loss of calcium.

slide75

CRANIAL BONES

  • Frontal
  • Parietal
  • Temporal
  • Occipital
  • Sphenoid
  • Ethmoid
slide76

FACIAL BONES

  • Nasal
  • Lacrimal
  • Maxillary
  • Mandibular
  • Zygomatic
  • Vomer
slide80

JOINTS

junctions (meeting places called articulations)

between two or more bones.

SYNARTHROSES

DIARTHROSES

slide82

Elevation

Depression

Protraction

Retraction

FOUR MOVEMENTS OF TMJ:

slide83

MUSCLES

fromLatin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse"

Myologyis the branch of anatomy dealing with the muscles,

muscular tissue components, structure and functions.

Striated - Voluntary

Smooth - Involuntary

Cardiac

slide84

MASTICATORY MUSCLES

Temporal Muscle

Masseter Muscle

Lateral (External)

Pterygoid Muscle

Digastric Muscle

(Anterior Portion)

slide89

FACIAL MUSCLES

Orbicularis oris

– the sphincter of the mouth

The buccinator

- a deep muscle of the cheek

slide91

Dendrite

Axon Terminal

Node of

Ranvier

Soma

Schwann cell

Axon

Nucleus

Myelin sheath

NERVE TISSUE

Neuroglia

Neurons

Neuron

slide92

SYNAPSE

Greek "syn-" ("together") and "haptein" ("to clasp").

synapses are specialized junctions through which neurons

signal to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.

slide94

CRANIAL NERVES

There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves.Olfactory IOptic IIOculomotor IIITrochlear IVTrigeminal VAbducens VIFacial VIIAuditory (vestibulocochlear) VIIIGlossopharyngeal IXVagus XSpinal Accessory XIHypoglossal XII

slide96

BLOOD AND OTHER BODY FLUIDS

Fluids constitute over

half of an adult’s weight

under normal conditions

These fluids are vital

in the transport of

nutrients to all cells

slide97

Blood is composed of:

liquid (plasma) – 55%

formed elements ( erythrocytes,

leukocytes and platelets) – 45 %

slide98

Plasma consists of about:

- 90% of water

7% proteins

less than 1%

inorganic salts,

organic substances, dissolved gases,

hormones, antibodies

and enzymes

slide99

Many important proteins

such as serum, albumin,

gamma globulin and

fibrinogen are dissolved

in the plasma

slide101

All blood cells originate from hemocytoblasts

They change from undifferentiated form into

specialized or differentiated

Hematopoiesis: :

slide102

Blood transports oxygen from the lungs to

the body tissues, and carbon dioxide

from the tissues to the lungs:

slide104

Erythrocytes

The great majority of

all blood cells

35 trillion in the

average adult

Total surface area almost

the size of a football field

slide106

Red blood cells are

stored in the spleen

They live for about

110 to 120 days

About 180 million

erythrocytes are

destroyed every

minute

slide107

Leukocytes

Body’s primary

defense against

Infections

These cells are larger

than erythrocytes and

fewer in number

Blood has about 8000

leukocytes per cubic

millimeter

slide108

Classification of leukocytes

  • Granulocytes ( neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils)

2. Agranulocytes (monocytes, lynphocytes)

slide109

Neutrophils form

about 70%, and

limphocytes about

20% of the total

number

slide110

Platelets (thrombocytes)

Small clear disk-shaped bodies

About 1/3 the size of erythrocytes

25000 platelets per one cubic millimeter of blood

They initiate blood clotting

slide111

Platelets disintegrate

and adhere to the

edges of the injured

tissue

slide112

Blood coagulation (clotting)

The process by which the body

prevents blood loss

Bleeding generally stops within

5 minutes

A thrombus can form

within a vessel

slide113

Defects in blood vessels (owing to injury or disease)

  • Anemia
  • Neutropenia
  • Human immunodeficiency
  • virus (HIV)
  • Leukimia
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Hemophilia
slide114

BLOOD TRANSFUSION

BLOOD GROUPS

slide115

Four main blood groups

Type O = universal donorsType AB = universal recipients

slide117

Rhesus factor - Rh

Another important factor, called Rh factor must also be considered in blood typing. This is a very complex system : 8 principal variants of the Rh factor are known, and there are others not yet identified and grouped. For practical reasons there are 2 main groups of Rh types:

Rh positive

Rh negative

slide119

Blood diseases

Blood parasites

Christmas disease

Hemophilia

Malaria

Septicemia

Vitamin K deficiency

Hemoglobin C,S,E disease

slide127

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

The cardiovascular system is composed of the

heart, blood vessels and blood. The circulatory

system consists of the heart, blood vessels and

lymphatics. This system transports food,

oxygen, and other vital substances to all body

cells and picks up waste products for disposal.

slide128

THE HEART

The heart is a hollow, muscular organ that

pumps blood through the blood vessels. It is

enclosed in a fibrouserous sac called

pericardium. The heart beats over 100.000

times per day. It weights about one half pound

and is the size of clenched fist

slide129

The heart has three distinctive layers of tissue:

The endocardium

The myocardium

The epicardium

The heart is divided into four chambers:

Right atrium

Right ventricle

Left atrium

Left ventricle

slide130

BLOOD VESSELS

ARTERIES

carry blood from the heart to the body tissues and organs

VEINS

carry blood back to the heart from body organs and tissues

CAPILLARIES

connect arterioles to venules.

slide131

LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

Lymph fluid

Capillaries

Lymphatic vessels

Lymphatic ducts

Lymph nodes

slide132

FUNCTION

Transporting fluids from tissues back to the bloodstream

Aiding in the control of infection caused by microorganisms

Conveyance of lipids or fats away from the digestive organs

slide134

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

The digestive system is

basically a long, muscular

tube that begins at the

mouth and ends at the anus

slide135

The functions of the

digestive system are

threefold

slide136

Digestive enzymes are substances that speed up

chemical reactions and help in the breakdown of

complex nutrients

Digestion can be defined as a complete process of

changing the chemical and physical composition of food

in order to facilitate assimilations of the nourishing

ingredients of flood by the cells of the body

slide138

THE MOUTH

The mouth is the first division of the digestive tube

and is separable into two parts, smaller external

part, the vestibule formed by the lips cheek, gums

and teeth and a larger part, the mouth proper (oral)

cavity behind the gums and teeth

slide139

Lips and cheeks

Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans

and many animals.

Lips are soft, movable, and serve as the opening for food

intake , and in the articulation of speech,

as a tactile sensory organ as an erogenous organ used

in kissing and other acts of intimacy.

slide140

Cheeks (Latin: buccae) constitute the area of the

face below the eyes and between the nose

and the left or right ear.

slide142

Gingiva are part of the soft tissue lining of the mouth.

They surround the teeth and provide a seal around them.

Compared with the soft tissue linings of the lips and cheeks,

most of the gingiva are tightly bound to the underlying bone

and are designed to resist the friction of food passing

over them. Healthy gingiva is usually coral pink,

but may contain physiologic pigmentation.

Changes in color, particularly increased redness,

together with edema and an increased tendency to bleed,

suggest an inflammation(gingivitis)

slide143

Teeth (singular, Tooth) are small whitish structures

found in the jaws(or mouths) of many vertebrates

that are used to tear, scrape, milk and chew food

Humans usually have 20 primary teeth

(also called deciduous, baby, or milk teeth)

and 32 permanent teeth. Among primary teeth,

10 are found in the (upper) maxilla and the other

10 in the (lower) mandible.

Teeth are classified as incisors, canines,premolars

and molars .

slide144

The main functions of the teeth:

Incisors = cutting

Canines = tearing

Premolars = crushing

Molars = grinding

slide145

The tongue

The tongue is skeletal muscle on the floor of the

mouth that manipulates food for

chewing and swallowing (deglutition).

slide146

The main functions of the tongue:

    • It moves food around in the mouth
    • It begins swallowing action (deglutition)
    • It aids in speech production
    • It provides the equipment for taste sensation