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Chapter 4 Word Formation (1)

Chapter 4 Word Formation (1). 4.1 Morphemes 4.2 Allomorphs 4.3 Types of morphemes 4.4 Stem, base and root 4.5 Three major processes of word formation – compounding – derivation – conversion. 4.1 Morphemes. The minimal meaningful units (Zhang, 1997, p. 38)

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Chapter 4 Word Formation (1)

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  1. Chapter 4 Word Formation (1) • 4.1 Morphemes • 4.2 Allomorphs • 4.3 Types of morphemes • 4.4 Stem, base and root • 4.5 Three major processes of word formation • – compounding – derivation – conversion English lexicology chapter 4

  2. 4.1 Morphemes • The minimalmeaningful units (Zhang, 1997, p. 38) • The smallest functioning unit in the composition of words (Crystal, 1985, as cited in Zhang, 1997, p. 38 ). • The smallest meaningful unit in a language. It cannot be divided without altering or destroying its meaning. E.g. the English wordkindis a morpheme. If the dis removed, it changes tokin, which has a different meaning. Some words consist of one morpheme, others of more than one (Richards, Platt, & Platt, 2000, p.296). English lexicology chapter 4

  3. 4.1 Morphemes • One morpheme: nation • Two morphemes: nation+al • Three morphemes: nation+al+ize • Four morphemes: de+nation+al+ize • More than four morphemes: de+nation+al+iz+ation English lexicology chapter 4

  4. Compared with words • a word can always stand alone, but a morpheme can’t. • a word can be further divided, but a morpheme can’t e.g. meaningful = mean+ing+ful English lexicology chapter 4

  5. 4.2 Allomorphs • Morph: Morphemes are abstract units, which are realized in speech by discrete units known as morphs. They are actual spoken, minimal carriers of meaning. • Monomorphemic words: words standing alone and functioning freely in a sentence. Most morphemes are realized by single morphs like bird, tree, green, sad, want, desire… English lexicology chapter 4

  6. 4.2 Allomorphs • Some morphemes are realized by more than one morph according to their position in a word. Such alternative morphs are known as allomorphs. • any of the different forms of a morpheme (Richards, Platt, & Platt, 2000, p.16).同一词素的不同形式/词素变体. e.g. cats, dogs, watches, classes, shapes, worked, warmed, wanted, incorrect, impossible,illegal, irregular English lexicology chapter 4

  7. 4.3 Types of Morphemes English lexicology chapter 4

  8. 4.3.1 Free (Content) Morpheme • One that can be uttered alone with meaning. It can exist on its own without a bound morpheme. E.g. word, cat, work, hope, care, etc • Free morpheme is a word in traditional sense.  e.g. work, worker, disagreeable • Also called free form. It’s a linguistic form (morpheme) which can be used on its own (Richards, Platt, & Platt, 2000, p.51). e.g. Betty, horse, write, drive… English lexicology chapter 4

  9. 4.3.2 Bound (Grammatical) Morpheme • It’s a morpheme that cannot occur as separate words, but should be bound to at least one other morphemes, either free or bound, to form words. e.g. “un-” and “-ly” in “unfortunately”, and “-es (plural morpheme) in “potatoes” English lexicology chapter 4

  10. 4.3.3 Root & Affix • Root: a morpheme which is the basic part of a word and carries the main component of meaning in a word and provides the basis from which a word is derived by adding affixes or inflectional endings or by phonetic change. It cannot be further analyzed without total loss of identity. e.g. work – works, working, worked, workable, English lexicology chapter 4

  11. Free root & bound root Root can be further divided into free root and bound root. A free root (free morpheme) can stand alone as a word, while a bound root (bound morpheme) can not, for example, “sui- (self) ” and “-cide(kill)” in “suicide” are two bound roots, each of which has to combine with other morphemes to make words. E.g. workbook, bookish, workshop, shopping bio = life: biology, biography, biocide duce/duct = lead; take: introduce, induce, conduct English lexicology chapter 4

  12. 4.3.3 Root & Affix • Affix is a type of bound morpheme that is attached to words or word elements to modify meaning or function. It includes inflectional affixes (grammatical M) and derivationalaffixes (lexical M). • An inflectional affix is attached to the end of words to indicate grammatical relationships, such as plurality, tense, and the comparative or superlative degree. (Modern English is an analytic language and leaves us only a few inflectional affixes.) E.g. “-es” in “teaches”, “-s” in “words”. English lexicology chapter 4

  13. 8 inflectional affixes in English • 1. Third Person Singular: "She plays the piano"2. Past Tense: "She played the piano"3. Progressive: "She is playing the piano now"4. Past participle: "She has/had eaten the cookies" 5. Plural: "She has two pianos"6. Possessive: "Mary's piano needs to be repaired" 7. Comparative: "Mary runs faster than Jack"8. Superlative: "Mary is the fastest of all" English lexicology chapter 4

  14. A derivational affix is added to other morphemes to create new words. It includesprefixesand suffixes. E.g. “dis-”in “discover”, “-ful” in “useful”. rewrite • Many derivational affixes have a specific lexical meaning, and quite a number of them have more than one meaning. e. g. –ism: doctrine or point of view (socialism) dis-: not or the converse of (dishonest, disloyal, disorder de – p. 26 English lexicology chapter 4

  15. 4.4 Stem, base and root • Stem (base form): The part of a word to which an inflectional affix is or can be added. e.g. works --- work undesirables– undesirable Root vs stem: e. g. workers taller worked English lexicology chapter 4

  16. Stem • The stem of a word may be: • A simple stem consisting of only one morpheme (root). E.g. work • A root plus a derivational affix. “work + er” = “worker” • Two or more roots. E.g. work + shop = workshop • Thus we can have work+s, worker +s, or workshop+s English lexicology chapter 4

  17. Base • Some linguists consider it to be equivalent to the term root. e.g. truth– truthful, truthfulness, truthfully, untruth, untruthful, untruthfulness, untruthfully • Other linguists maintain that the base is any part of a word when an affix is added to a root or stem. e.g. unhappy – happy, unhappiness-- unhappy English lexicology chapter 4

  18. root, stem vs base • Root is not further analyzable. e.g. undoubtedly • Stem mainly deals with inflectional affixation. e. g. works, workers, workshops • Base is any form to which affixes of any kind can be added. So it is further analyzable. e.g. desire (root, stem, base) desirableadj. (base) --- undesirable adj. undesirablen. (base, stem) --- undesirables Analyze:impersonality English lexicology chapter 4

  19. De nation al ize d English lexicology chapter 4

  20. Nation (root, base) • National (base) • Nationalize (base, stem) nationalized • Denationalize (stem, base) • Denationalized English lexicology chapter 4

  21. 4.5 Three major processes of word formation • 3.5.1 Compounding/composition27% (张韵菲,2005)28%-30% (张维友,1997) • 3.5.2 Derivation /affixation17.5% (张韵菲,2005)30%-40%(张维友,1997) • 3.5.3 Conversion10.5% (张韵菲,2005)26% (张维友,1997) English lexicology chapter 4

  22. 4.5.1 Compounding • Compounding or composition is a word-formation process consisting of joining two or more bases to form a new unit, a compound word (Zhang, 2005, p.35). • Compounding is a combination of two or more words which functions as a single word. Compound words are written either as a single word (e.g. headache), as hyphenated words (e.g. self-government), or as two words (e.g. police station) (Richards, Platt, & Platt, 2000, p.89). English lexicology chapter 4

  23. General Features of Compounding 1. Phonetic features • In compounds, the word stress occurs on the first element. In free phrases, on the second element (a ‘dark horse --- a dark ‘horse) ; • or a main stress on the first element and a secondary stress on the second element (‘black ,list), whereas a secondary stress on the first element and the main stress on the second element (a ,blue ‘pencil) • But stress does not always follow the rules for compounds. E.g. minced ‘meat, inverted ‘comma always have phrase stress. ‘Short ‘sighted (two leveled stress) English lexicology chapter 4

  24. 2. Semantic features • Every compound should express a single idea, which may be related to but cannot always be inferred from the meaning of its component parts. e.g. backdoor, workday, sunset, homemade blackmail, hotdog, blueblood, dog days English lexicology chapter 4

  25. 3. Grammatical features • A compound tends to play a single grammatical role in a sentence / function as a separate lexical unit, for example, a verb, a noun, or an adjective. (bad-mouthused as a verb: He bad-mouthed me.) • In adjective-noun compounds, the adjective element cannot take inflectional suffixes. (red tape (官样文章) –reddest tape(最红的带子) English lexicology chapter 4

  26. Classification of compounds According to part of speech of compounds • Noun compounds • Adjective compounds • Verb compounds English lexicology chapter 4

  27. Noun compounds 1. Subject and verb sunrise (the sun rises). N.+v earthquake, sound change, catcall, nightfall crybaby (the baby likes to cry/cries) v.+n. glowworm, playboy, watchdog, turntable, hangman dancing girl (the girl dances) -ing+n. cleaning woman, washing machine, investigating committee, English lexicology chapter 4

  28. 2. Verb and object pickpocket (to pick pockets) v.+n. birth control (to control birth)n.+v. housekeeping (to keep house)n.+-ing 3.Verb and adverbial drinking water ( water for drinking)–ing+n. diving board, freezing point, writing desk, walking stick, handwriting English lexicology chapter 4

  29. 4. Subject and object steamboat (steam powers the boat) n.+n. gaslight, windmill, cable car, hydrogen bomb, air-brake, silkworm, tear gas • 5. Restrictive relation: the first element restricts the meaning of the second e.g. raindrop (a drop of rain) n. +n. moonwalk, evening school, tablecloth • 6. Appositive relation: the first element is in apposition to the second one, n.+n. e.g. peasant girl (the girl is a peasant) pine tree, English lexicology chapter 4

  30. Adjective compounds • 1. Subject and verb: the verb is in the form of past participle n + -ed. e.g. thunder-struck (houses), suntanned (skin), weather –beaten (rocks) • 2. Verb and object: the verb is in the form of present participle, n.+-ing. E.g fault-finding, peaceloving • 3. Verb and adverbial: the verb is in the form of present participle or past participle, n/adv. +-ed/-ing e.g. ocean-going, well-behaved, new-laid (eggs) English lexicology chapter 4

  31. 4. Noun and adjective: (1) the noun denoting the respect, n.+adj.E.g. tax-free, seasick, watertight, war-weary, dust-proof (2) the noun denoting the thing with which the adj. is compared, n.+adj.E.g. ocean green, crystal clear, knee-deep, shoulder high, rock-hard, jet-black • 5. Coordinating relationship: the two adj.sare in a coordinating relationship, adj.+adj. E.g. bittersweet (sweet but bitter), Anglo-French relations (relation between the English and the French), deaf-mute, Sino-Italian, socio-economic English lexicology chapter 4

  32. 5. phrases – phrasal verbs: made-up stories adverbial phrases: a round-the-clock watch a cards-on-the-table conference attributive clause: a machine-independent tool English lexicology chapter 4

  33. Verb compounds • Verb compounds are compounds formed by back-formation and conversion e.g. house-keep housekeeper, housekeeping baby-sit babysitting, babysitter windowshop windowshopping to nickname nickname n. to outline outline n. English lexicology chapter 4

  34. 4.5.2 Derivation • Derivation is also called affixation. It is the formation of new words by adding affixes to other words or morphemes (Richards, Platt, & Platt, 2000, p.129). • Derivation can be defined as a process of forming new words by the addition of a word element, such as a prefix, suffix or combining form, to an already existing word (SBDONE, 1980, as cited in Zhang, Y. 2005, pp. 42-43). English lexicology chapter 4

  35. Prefixation Prefixation is the formation of new words by adding a prefix or combining form to the base. Prefixes modify the lexical meaning of the base. They do not generally change the word-class of the base. However, it has been found that there are quite a number of prefixes in current English which do convert words to a different word word-class. e.g. be- adj →v. becalm, belittle de- n. →v. deform, debug en- n. →v. enslave, endanger, encourage un- n. →v. unleash, unearth anti- n. →adj. anti-war, anti-aircraft inter- n. →adj. interstate, inter-laboratory, post- n. →adj. post-war, postliberation pre- n. →adj. precalculus, preplant, prewar, preschool English lexicology chapter 4

  36. Classification of prefixes • Prefixes can be classified on a semantic basis into 9groups. • Negative prefixes (apolitical, disobey, injustice (illegal, irresistible, immature), non-smoker, unwilling) • Reversative/privative prefixes (逆反前缀) (decentralize, disunite, unhorse) English lexicology chapter 4

  37. 3. Pejorative prefixes(贬义前缀)(maltreat, mistrust, pseudo-friend) 4. Prefixes of degree or size (archbishop, extra-strong, hyperactive, macrocosm, microcomputer, miniskirt, outlive, overweight, subcontinent, subheading, superfreeze, surtax, ultra-conservative, underdeveloped, underestimate, overestimate) English lexicology chapter 4

  38. Prefixes of orientation and attitude (anti-nuclear, contra-flow, counterattack, pro-democracy) • locative prefixes (extramarital, extracurricular, forehead, internet, intra-party, trans-world, subconscious) • Prefixes of time and order (ex-wife, foretell, postwar, pre-prepare, reconsider) English lexicology chapter 4

  39. 8. number (bicycle, multimedia, polysyllable, semi-naked, hemisphere, tricycle, uniform, monorail, monolog, dialog, triangle, quadruple, centimeter, kilogram, ambidextrous) 9. miscellaneous (autobiography, neo-Nazi, pan-European, vice-chairman, semivowel , telecommunication) English lexicology chapter 4

  40. suffixation • Suffixation is the formation of a new word by adding a suffix or a combining form to the base and usually changing the word-class of the base, e.g. boy → boyish • Classification of suffixes suffixes can be classified not only according to the word-class of the word they form, but also according to the kind of base to which they are typically added. English lexicology chapter 4

  41. Classification of suffixes • Noun suffixes • v. →n. (Deverbal noun suffixes) • To be people (assist – assistant, employ –employee, respond – respondent, teach –teacher, visit – visitor) • To be abstract nouns of action, result, process, state (marry – marriage, coinage, refuse – refusal, accept – acceptance, compose – composition, pronounce – pronunciation, decide – decision, operate – operation, exist – existence, build – building, state – statement.) English lexicology chapter 4

  42. n. →n. suffixes (Denominal noun suffixes) • To be concrete nouns (profit – profiteer, teenage – teenager , host –hostess, cigar –cigarette, book –booklet ) • To be abstract nouns (mileage, baggage, kingdom, officialdom, slavery, machinery, adulthood, farming, terror – terrorism, friend – friendship, membership, handful, plateful) • Adj. →n. Deadjective noun suffixes popularity, diversity, largeness, selfishness, possibility, honesty, falsehood, accuracy, importance • Both nouns and adjectives Chinese, republican, American, artist, specialist English lexicology chapter 4

  43. Verb (-forming) suffixes • only a few in English, among which –ize is very productive, added to n. or adj. bases to form transitive verbs. e.g. origin – originate, hyphenate, formula – formulate, short –shorten, black – blacken, simple – simplify, solid – solidify, symbol – symbolize, modern – modernize, popular – popularize English lexicology chapter 4

  44. Adjective suffixes • n. → adj. (Denominal adj. suffixes) • (wooded, successful, childish, priceless, dreamlike, friendly, smoky, cultural, essential, periodical, snowy picturesque, economic, vigorous, rebellious, courteous) • classic example, classical music • comic opera, comical looking • historic city, historical book • economic crisis, economical stove • electric light, electrical engineer English lexicology chapter 4

  45. v. → adj. (Deverbal adj. suffixes ) • washable, permissible, active, talkative, conclusive, tiresome, troublesome • Adverb (-forming) suffixes • clearly, accidentally, partly, namely, homeward, downwards, eastward, clockwise, English lexicology chapter 4

  46. 4.5.3 Conversion • Conversion means the formation of new words by converting words of one class to another class. E.g. visitv.– pay a visitn. x-rayn. – to x-rayv. emptyadj.– empty the bottlev. pooradj.– the poorn. • Words produced by conversion are primarily nouns, adjectives and verbs. And the most productive are taking place between noun and verb. e.g. pp.58- 62 English lexicology chapter 4

  47. Other names • Functional shift: This is a method of turning words of one part of speech to those of a different part of speech. The words do not change in morphological structure. They are new only in a grammatical sense. e.g. He was knocked out in the first round. Anyroundplate will do. Some drivers roundcorners too rapidly. The sound goes round and round. He livesround the corner. • Zero-derivation: no addition of an affix when conversion. E.g. single, simple English lexicology chapter 4

  48. Conversion to verbs • Noun to verb:one of the most productive. ◎a tendency of preponderance of nouns over verbs, and it’s not enough to express the ideas. ◎only a few verb-forming affixes in English. • 1.to put in or onN: the nouns are usually locative Ns denoting a place, a container or a specified location. to pocket the money (can, bottle, corner, cage) • 2.to give N or to provide with N:to shelter the refugees (coat, label, wax, grease, plaster, oil) English lexicology chapter 4

  49. 3.to remove N from:to skin the lamb (dust, peel, weed, juice, core, gut) • 4.to do… with N:to knife the steak (brake, screw, glue, nail, x-ray, finger, elbow, pump) • 5.to be or act as N:to nurse the baby (mother, boss, referee, pilot, captain, tutor, parrot, monkey, shadow) • 6.to make or change into N: to orphan the boy ( cash, cripple, fool, widow, group ) • 7.to send or go by N:to mail the letter (ski, bicycle/helicopter/boat/motor) • 8. To spend the period of time denoted by N.:We summered in Qingdao. (holiday, vocation, honeymoon, weekend) English lexicology chapter 4

  50. Adjective to verb • They can be used either transitively to mean “to make/cause … adjective (to empty the bottle)” or intransitively “to become adjective (the bottle began to empty)”. • More words: yellow, wet, empty, dim, dirty, warm, cool, slow, clear, dry, narrow. • Transitive verbs: still, forward, free, bare, blind; • Intransitive verbs: sour, slim, pale,idle English lexicology chapter 4

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