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(Radio) Astronomy in Taiwan Jeremy Lim Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), Taiwan Taiwan (22.5 million) Malaysia (23 million) ASIAA established (1993) Growth of Astronomy in Taiwan Taiwan only recently became a player in modern astronomy 1980 1990 2000

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slide1

(Radio) Astronomy in Taiwan

Jeremy Lim

Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), Taiwan

Taiwan

(22.5 million)

Malaysia (23 million)

slide2

ASIAA established (1993)

Growth of Astronomy in Taiwan

  • Taiwan only recently became a player in modern astronomy

1980

1990

2000

“Story of Modern Astronomy in Taiwan is very much the story of ASIAA”

slide3

Why do Astronomy?

Forefront Scientific Research

  • No secrets or patents – Discoveries openly published, Universe available to All
  • Friendly and Helpful Community: Open (competitive) access to forefront Telescopes Collaborations to build up Research or Instruments/Telescopes
  • Taiwan Funding Agencies – Academia Sinica, National Science Council, and Ministry of Education

Improve Science and Technology

  • Graduate Education (Astrophysics, Mathematics, Engineering, Computers, …)
  • Technology transfer to Industry

Public Support

  • Strong Public interest, stimulates Education among all Ages
slide4

Main Astronomy/Astrophysics Institutes/Departments

  • Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei (NTU) (10 faculty, ~17 postdocs, ~20 technical, ~15 assistants, ~15 students)
  • Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University (NCU), Chung-Li (9 faculty, ~20 Masters, ~5 PhD, ~2 postdocs)
  • Institute of Astrophysics, National Taiwan University (NTU), Taipei (3 faculty, a few students)
  • Institute of Astronomy, National Tsing-Hua University (NTHU), Tsing-Hua (2 faculty, a few students)
  • Theoretical Institute for Advanced Research in Astrophysics (TIARA), NTHU-AS initiative (currently housed at ASIAA)
  • Astronomers on faculty in other University departments
slide5

Main Telescope Research Projects

“Builder, not just user”

Radio Telescopes

  • Sub-Millimeter Array (SMA) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii (USA, Taiwan), commissioned
  • Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) on Mauna Loa, Hawaii (Taiwan, Australia, USA, Canada), under construction
  • Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) on Atacama, Chile (USA, Europe, Japan), under negotiation with Japan

Optical Telescopes

  • Taiwan-American-Occultation Survey (TAOS) on Lulin mountain, Taiwan (Taiwan, USA, Korea), under construction
  • WIRCam for CFHT (3.6 m) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii (Canada, France, USA, Korea, Taiwan), under construction
slide6

The Sub-Millimeter Array (SMA) − Overview

  • Partnership between Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and ASIAA
  • Eight 6-meter antennas located at Mauna Kea, Hawaii (altitude 4080 m)
  • 2 antennas constructed by ASIAA – increases number of baselines from 15 to 28!
slide7

The Sub-Millimeter Array (SMA) − Overview

  • Partnership between Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and ASIAA
  • Eight 6-meter antennas located at Mauna Kea, Hawaii (altitude 4080 m)
  • 2 antennas constructed by ASIAA – increases number of baselines from 15 to 28!

Hangar for Assembly

Control Room

slide8

The Sub-Millimeter Array (SMA) − Operating Bands

  • Receivers at 1.3 mm (270 GHz), 0.8 mm (345 GHz), and 0.4 mm (690 GHz)
slide9

The Sub-Millimeter Array (SMA) − Mount & Reflector

  • Constructed and Assembled in Taiwan in partnership with Industry
  • Mount constructed by China Shipbuilding Company (CSBC) in Keelung
slide10

The Sub-Millimeter Array (SMA) − Mount & Reflector

  • Constructed and Assembled in Taiwan in partnership with Industry
  • Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Plastic Tubes for Reflector Backup Structure constructed by NITE (bicycle company) in Taichung
slide11

The Sub-Millimeter Array (SMA) − Mount & Reflector

  • Constructed and Assembled in Taiwan in partnership with Industry
  • Antenna Mechanical/Electrical Assembly by Aeronautic Research Laboratory (ARL) in Taichung
slide12

The Sub-Millimeter Array (SMA) − Receiver Systems

  • Establishment of a Receiver Laboratory at ASIAA
  • All Receiver Systems assembled/tested by ASIAA Receiver Laboratory
slide13

The Sub-Millimeter Array (SMA) − Junctions

  • Developing expertise to make Low-Noise Junctions for Receivers
  • 690 GHz SiS (Nb/SiO2) junction fabricated at ASIAA and National Tsing-Hua University (NTHU)
slide14

The Sub-Millimeter Array (SMA) − Science

  • Array commissioned in November 2003
  • General Purpose Astronomical Research: Solar System – Planetary Atmospheres Galactic Astronomy – Star Formation, Evolved Stars, Planetary Nebulae Extragalactic Astronomy – Dust and Interstellar Medium, Relativistic Jets
slide15

The Sub-Millimeter Array (SMA) − Science

  • Science Program: Molecular Gas in Messier 51 (a nearby active galaxy)

SMA: 12CO (2-1) @230 GHz

slide16

The Sub-Millimeter Array (SMA) − Science

  • Science Program: Motion of Molecular Gas in M51

SMA: 12CO (2-1) @230 GHz

slide17

The Sub-Millimeter Array (SMA) − Science

  • Science Programs: Feeding the Central Supermassive Black Hole in M51

12CO (1-0) @115 GHz

Sakamoto et al. (1999)

slide18

The Sub-Millimeter Array (SMA) − Science

  • Science Programs: Feeding the Central Supermassive Black Hole in M51

SMA:12CO (2-1) @230 GHz

slide19

The Sub-Millimeter Array (SMA) − Science

  • Science Programs: Feeding the Central Supermassive Black Hole in M51

SMA:12CO (3-2) @345 GHz

slide20

CMB

observing frequency

Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA)

  • Local Partners ASIAA and National Taiwan University (NTU)
  • Measure polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background at 3 mm (90 GHz)
  • Search for distant Galaxy Clusters from Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect at 3 mm, as tracer of Large-Scale Structure of the Universe

CMB modified by SZ effect

slide21

Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA)

  • Measurement of SZ-effect with Owens Valley Radio Observatory

X-ray Contours X-ray False-Color

X-ray Contours Radio False-Color

X-ray Contours Optical False-Color

Patel et al. (2000)

slide22

Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA)

  • AMiBA Prototype (2 x 30 cm) dishes on Mauna Loa, Hawaii (2002)
  • Hardware Testing and Trouble-Shooting, Astronomy Test Observations

Fringes on Moon

Two-element Prototype

slide23

Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA)

  • AMiBA to be deployed in 2004 (starting with 7 elements, 0.6 – 2.4 m dishes)
slide24

Taiwan-American-Occultation Survey (TAOS)

  • Local Partners ASIAA and National Central University (NCU)
  • Determine size distribution of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs)

Discovery of first KBO

The Solar System

Jewiit & Luu (1993)

slide25

Taiwan-American-Occultation Survey (TAOS)

  • Only KBOs ≥ 100 km detectable by even the largest optical telescopes
  • TAOS able to detect KBOs ≥ 2 km by occultation of Background Stars
slide26

Taiwan-American-Occultation Survey (TAOS)

  • Instrument: Four 20 inch (50 cm) telescopes on Lulin Mountain, Taiwan
slide27

Taiwan-American-Occultation Survey (TAOS)

  • Test observation: Occultation of Background Star by a known Asteroid

1 Frame (0.2 s)

slide28

Astronomy in Taiwan: A Strong Growth Phase

  • Strong Growth anticipated for TIARA, NTU, and NTHU
  • ASIAA, with ~70 members currently, continues to expand to meet challenge of ALMA and other projects
  • Active Recruitment of Astronomers, Astrophysicists, Physicists, Engineers, and Computer Scientists (hardware and software)
  • Positions advertised in Physics Today and Job Register of American Astronomical Society
  • For more Information, please contact: Jeremy Lim (Chair, Postdoc Committee) jlim@asiaa.sinica.edu.twSun Kwok (Director, Executive Committee) kwok@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw