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Donor Trends by Donor Types. PBDD Annual Meeting March 2007 . Bilateral Donors. Aid is increasing: Real terms: 106.78 billion USD (2005) 32% increase from 2004 ODA/GNI: 0.33%/GNI (DAC members’ average) Misleading Administration: 4-8% of total ODA Debt Relief: Over 20% of total ODA

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donor trends by donor types

Donor Trends by Donor Types

PBDD Annual Meeting

March 2007

bilateral donors
Bilateral Donors
  • Aid is increasing:
    • Real terms: 106.78 billion USD (2005) 32% increase from 2004
    • ODA/GNI: 0.33%/GNI (DAC members’ average)
  • Misleading
    • Administration: 4-8% of total ODA
    • Debt Relief: Over 20% of total ODA
    • Technical Cooperation
    • Humanitarian Assistance
  • Project and Program Aid is decreasing:
    • Only 38% of Total ODA (2005)
bilateral donors asset allocation
Bilateral DonorsAsset Allocation

To Who?

  • Allies: “War on Terrorism”: Pakistan, Indonesia, the Philippines
  • “Good governance” countries:
  • Countries with trade ties to donors: Australia, Italy, France

To Where?

  • Afghanistan, Iraq: 37% of new ODA resources from 2000-4
  • Nigeria: debt relief
  • Sub-Saharan Africa: 32.6 % of total ODA (2004)
bilateral donors asset allocation5
Bilateral DonorsAsset Allocation

To What?

Project and Program Aid Breakdown

  • Social and administrative (2005)
    • Education: 6.1%
    • Health: 3.8%
    • Govt & Civil Society: 9.7%
  • Economic Infrastructure: 10.2 %
  • Production: 5.2%

Of this, MDG-related ODA: 11.3%

bilateral donors6
Bilateral Donors

Current Trends

  • ‘Big Push’: idea from the 1950s back in the spotlight
  • Commitments to increase: 0.7% by 2015
  • Aid Concessionality: Since 2000 share of grants up 7% per year
  • New Aid Architecture
    • New Distribution Mechanisms: Swaps, PRSPs, PBAs
    • Partnerships: MDGs as a common goal, Paris Declaration
    • Untying Aid: DAC agreement to fully untie aid for the LDCs
  • Supporting Good Governance
philanthropic foundations origin of assets
Philanthropic Foundations: Origin of Assets

Where is the $ coming from?

  • Increase in the number of wealthy
    • 691 Billionaires (2005)
    • 77,500 Families with 30 million +
    • 8.3 million Millionaires
  • “Hot” Sectors:
    • Technology
    • Finance (Hedge Funds)
  • Intergenerational transfer of wealth
philanthropic foundations origin of assets8
Philanthropic Foundations: Origin of Assets
  • Emergence of Foundations Worldwide
    • US: 38, 807 in 1995, 75,953 in 2006
    • Brazil: 157 % increase in Foundations (1996 and 2002)
    • Emerging Economies: China and India
  • Increase in Spending
    • US: $32.4 billion (2004), approx $3 billion to international causes
philanthropic foundations golden age of philanthropy
Philanthropic Foundations:Golden Age of Philanthropy
  • Expected/Trendy: If you got the money, you got to give/ Want to be on the giving list
  • Media: Bill and Melinda Gates voted Time Magazine’s People of the Year
  • Governments: pro-philanthropy policies and tax incentives
philanthropic foundations asset allocation
Philanthropic Foundations:Asset Allocation

To Where? (US data only)

  • Africa: 19 % of international funding
  • Europe: 22% of international funding

In 2002, 71% of the funding allocated to Western Europe was earmarked for the implementation of international programs orchestrated by Europe-based IOs or research centres (mainly went to Africa in the end)

philanthropic foundations trends
Philanthropic Foundations:Trends
  • The “new philanthropist”: young and involved
  • Under the microscope: increased media & government interest
  • Business Ethos
    • Managed like a business: measure those impacts
    • Leverage: find your niche
    • Reduce and Rationalize: focus your programs
  • Hybridization: corporate non-profits? e.g. Google.org, Omidyar Network
  • International Giving: going up but will overseas regulations (war on terrorism) bring it down?
  • Partnerships and Networks: very desirable
private sector giving
Private SectorGiving

US

  • Economy Dependent: US in 2004, strong profits in a number of industries resulted in a 13.4 percent increase in gifts to corporate foundations from parent companies
  • 2002-4: 0.3 decrease in US corporate giving
  • 2005: Rebounded by 22.5 %
  • Corporate foundations: 29% of total corporate giving

EU

  • 2005: EU's top 25 corporate foundations 1.7 billion Euros
private sector asset allocation
Private Sector: Asset Allocation

Allocation by Sector (2005)

  • Health and Human Services: 43.47%
  • International: 18.36 %
  • Education: 14.11%
  • Community: 8.33%
  • Tsunami: 4.7%
  • Arts and Culture: 3.79%
  • Environment: 1.37%

Corporate International Giving by Region:

    • 73% to Asia (China 27 %, India 23 %) (US Allocations 2006)
private sector trends
Private SectorTrends
  • Good for Business
    • Image: CSR
    • Opens new markets
    • Improves community and shareholder relations
    • Increases labour pool: retention tool
  • Strategic Philanthropy: Leverage
  • Impact and Scrutiny:
    • good for business?
    • no longer a sleazy slush fund for corporate board members’ pet causes?
remittances origin of assets
RemittancesOrigin of Assets
  • $167 billion (US) in 2005
  • North-South Remittances
    • 41% increase in outflows from 2001-2005
    • US is the largest source: $39 billion (2004)
  • South-South Remittances
    • 161% increase in outflows from 2001-2005
    • $24 billion (2004)
remittances asset allocation
RemittancesAsset Allocation
  • Top recipients: China, India, Mexico, and the Philippines
  • Latin America/Caribbean: 53 billion (2006)
  • Sub-Saharan Africa: 7 billion (2006)

All underestimated because of lack of data

remittances
Remittances

Trends:

  • Remittances for Development
    • Donors: USAID, DFID researching remittances
    • Recipient countries implementing matching and banking policies to attract and utilize remittances: Mexico, The Philippines, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and India
private sector origin of assets
Private SectorOrigin of Assets
  • North America
    • Canada 8.9 billion (CAD) (2004)
    • US 199 billion (US) (2004-5)
  • Europeans and Japanese give primarily through governments

Private giving/philanthropy accounts for only 12% of the revenue raised by the civil society sector (Global Average). The majority of funding comes from fees, followed by government grants.

private giving asset allocation
Private Giving Asset Allocation
  • Global Average: 1% of CSOs active in international work.
  • Private Giving: Primarily Domestic
    • Germany: 75% of contributions to top 16 charities went to international dev’t
    • UK: 25% to international dev’t
    • Netherlands: 15% to international dev’t
    • Canada: 4%
    • US: 2.5 %
private giving trends
Private GivingTrends
  • Tax carrots and sticks:
    • Tax carrots: Full Tax Deductions: Australia, Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Ireland, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland, UK, US No Tax Deductions: Austria Finland Sweden
    • Tax sticks: Ceilings: Low ceiling: Denmark (5000 DKK), high ceiling: Canada (60 percent of income)
    • Overall France’s tax code creates the largest price incentive while those of Austria, Finland, and Sweden offer none
  • Mega philanthropy: Buffett, Branson
    • 21 Americans donated at least $100 million to charitable causes, nearly doubling the number that did so in 2005.
  • Truly wealthy under the eye of the media:
multilateral donors origin of assets us million 2005
Multilateral DonorsOrigin of Assets (US million, 2005)
  • Gross Concessional Flows: $ 26,730 million (2005)
  • Gross Non-Concessional Flows: $ 24,410 million (2005)
  • Bilateral share to Multilateral Donors:
    • 30% of Bilateral ODA.
multilateral donors
Multilateral Donors

Source: DEVELOPMENT AID AT A GLANCE STATISTICS BY REGION 2006 Edition DAC-OECD

multilateral donors trends
Multilateral DonorsTrends
  • Bilateralization of multilateral aids: donor countries began to use multilateral institutions in the mid-1980s to manage their own bilateral aid programs, primarily by establishing trust funds and co-financing projects. This has reduced the amounts of ‘core’ resources available to multilateral institution, increased the proportion of ‘non-core’ resources provided by donor countries for specific purposes and led to hidden subsidies as donors rarely pay the full administrative costs associated with the use of non-core resources.
  • Banks in the Black: World Bank and the three major long-established Regional Development Banks have moved over the past decade to a position where not only do they no longer require capital increases but they are also routinely spending less than they are receiving