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A2 Physical Education. Catastrophe Theory. Catastrophe theory. A. Optimum arousal. Extreme Decline. Performance. D. C. B. Arousal. Catastrophe Theory. Modification to the inverted U hypothesis

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A2 physical education

A2 Physical Education

Catastrophe Theory

A2 physical education

Catastrophe theory


Optimum arousal

Extreme Decline






Catastrophe theory
Catastrophe Theory

  • Modification to the inverted U hypothesis

  • Both argue that if arousal increases it will have a positive effect on performance to a certain point

  • Combination of high physiological arousal with high cognitive anxiety levels – players become upset to the detriment of the game

Catastrophe theory1
Catastrophe Theory

  • Deterioration is much more extreme

  • Can not be put right by merely calming down

  • Going over the top!

  • Ability to concentrate

  • Recovery can be very difficult

  • Requires mental toughness

Key to figure
Key to Figure

  • Point A- Cognitive anxiety - reaching this threshold creates a catastrophic effect

  • Point B – performers continue with deterioration caused by over arousal May continue to Point C

  • Point B they get to grips with the problem performance will move towards Point D

Achievement motivation revision
Achievement Motivation (Revision)

  • Questions

  • Why do some learners/performers achieve and some don’t ?

  • Why are some performers are driven to be more competitive?

  • The need to achieve is a relatively stable disposition to strive for success

Achievement motivation revision1
Achievement Motivation (Revision)

  • Introduced by Murray (1938)

  • 20 different motives or needs

  • Achievement is linked to personality of the performer

  • Competitive or Achievement orientated

  • Gill (1986)

  • A person who has high levels of achievement motivation would have a tendency to strive for success, persists in the face of failure and experience pride in accomplishments

Atkinson s personality components
Atkinson's Personality Components

  • Ability to balance two underlying motives

  • The need to achieve success

  • The need to avoid failure

Situational component
Situational Component

  • The probability of success along with

  • The incentive value of that success

A2 physical education


Atkinson’s suggested relationship between success and the incentive value

Incentive value of success



Probability of sucess

Examples and formula
Examples and Formula

  • Average player v Professional = probability of success LOW

  • Incentive value of winning for the average is high = satisfaction

  • MS – Maf x PS x I – P

  • Motive to succeed Motive to avoid failure Probability of Success Incentive value of success

Outcome goal orientation
Outcome Goal Orientation

  • Motivated by winning and beating the opposition enjoy feelings from competing and comparing.

  • Ego boosted

  • High expectations for the future

Task goal orientation
Task Goal Orientation

  • Want to win

  • Not so interested in comparison to others

  • Developing own technical advances

  • Intrinsic motivation

  • Do fear failure

Stages of motivation
Stages of Motivation

  • Describe Veroffs sequential stages

  • 1. Autonomous competence

  • 2. Social comparison stage

  • 3 Integrated stage

  • List the factors which may influence achievement motivation

Attribution theory
Attribution Theory

  • Perception of causes to behaviour and outcomes

  • Complete activity 9 and 10 page 451 core text book

A2 physical education

Internal Attributions



Task Difficulty

Stable attributions


Unstable attributions



Please complete activity 11 page 452 core text

Self serving bias
Self–Serving Bias

  • Take credit for success

  • Disassociation of failure

  • Blaming External factors

  • Success attributed to internal factors ------ & ---------?

  • Do performers attribute poor performance to external factors?