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Plasma
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Plasma

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  1. Plasma Dickson Lim(14) 1p2

  2. Content • Brief introduction • Formation of Plasma • Definition of Plasma • Properties • Common Plasma • Plasma • Uses of Plasma • Plasma TV • Interesting facts • Photo Gallery

  3. Brief Introduction to Plasma • Very similar to gas • -certain particles are ionized • Has properties quite unlike those of solids, liquids, or gases • Considered to be a distinct state of matter • 4th state of matter

  4. Formation of Plasma • A plasma is an ionized gas, a gas into which sufficient energy is provided to free electrons from atoms or molecules and to allow both species, ions and electrons, to coexist. • A plasma is a gas that has been energized to the point that some of the electrons break free from, but travel with, their nucleus.

  5. Formation of Plasma • The energy can be of various origins: thermal, electrical, or light • E.g. ultraviolet light or intense visible light from a laser. • With insufficient sustaining power, plasmas recombine into neutral gas.

  6. Definition of Plasma • Charged particles must be close enough together that each particle influences many nearby charged particles • (rather than just interacting with the closest particle) • Interactions in the bulk of the plasma are more important than those at its edges, where boundary effects may take place.

  7. Properties

  8. Common Plasma • Are by far the most common phase of matter in the universe, both by mass and by volume. • All the stars are made of plasma, and even the space between the stars is filled with a plasma, albeit a very sparse one. • In our solar system, the planet Jupiter accounts for most of the non-plasma, only about 0.1% of the mass and 10−15% of the volume within the orbit of Pluto.

  9. Plasma • By far the most common form of matter • Present in the stars and in the tenuous space • Makes up over 99% of the visible universe and perhaps most of that which is not visible

  10. Plasma • Consists of a collection of free moving electrons and ions - atoms that have lost electrons. • Energy is needed to strip electrons from atoms to make plasma. • The energy can be of various origins: thermal, electrical, or light. • With insufficient sustaining power, plasmas recombine into neutral gas.

  11. Plasma • Can be accelerated and steered by electric and magnetic fields • Allows it to be controlled and applied. • Temperature commonly measured in kelvins or electronvolts • Informal measure of the thermal kinetic energy per particle.

  12. Plasma • Can be accelerated and steered by electric and magnetic fields • Allows it to be controlled and applied. • Temperature commonly measured in kelvins or electronvolts • Informal measure of the thermal kinetic energy per particle.

  13. Uses • Mainly used in high tech industries • Microelectronic/semiconductors • chips for computers • transmitters for microwaves or high temperature films • Can even be used in extraction of minerals • e.g.diamond • Plasma TV

  14. Plasma TV • A plasma display panel (PDP) is a type of flat panel display common to large TV displays . • Many tiny cells between just two panels of glass hold a mixture of noble gases. • The gas in the cells is electrically turned into a plasma which emits ultraviolet light which then excites phosphors to emit visible light.

  15. Pros & Cons of Plasma TV • Advantages • Achieves better and more accurate color reproduction than LCDs • Produces deep, true blacks allowing for superior contrast ratios (up to 1:2,000,000) • Far wider viewing angles than those of LCD • Disadvantages • Susceptible to screen burn-in and image retention • Gradual decline of absolute image brightness • Use more electricity, on average, than an LCD TV

  16. Lightning • Lightning is an example of plasma present at Earth’s surface • Typically, lightning discharges 30,000 amperes at up to 100 million volts, and emits light, radio waves, X-rays and even gamma rays • Plasma temperatures in lightning can approach ~28,000 kelvin and electron densities may exceed 1024 m−3

  17. Tycho’s Supernova • The remnant of "Tycho's Supernova", a huge ball of expanding plasma • The outer shell shown in blue is X-ray emission by high-speed electrons.

  18. Video • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0ALJY-nWbnQ Tychos’s Supernova Please click the picture to watch the video

  19. Sun • The biggest chunk of plasma you will see is that dear friend to all of us, the sun. • The sun's enormous heat rips electrons off the hydrogen and helium molecules that make up the sun. • Essentially, the sun, like most stars, is a great big ball of plasma.

  20. Photo Gallery

  21. Credits • http://www.plasmas.org • http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_plasma.html • http://www.tvsnob.com/pictures/plasma-cool.jpg • www.youtube.com (video)

  22. Thank You

  23. Q & A Q&A