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Weather Vs. Climate

Weather Vs. Climate

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Weather Vs. Climate

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  1. Weather Vs. Climate

  2. Weather: atmospheric conditions in a particular location over a short period of time (a day to a week) • Weather occurs in the troposphere (first 0-10 km of the atmosphere)

  3. Weather descriptions may include one or more of the following: • Temperature • Type and amount of precipitation • Wind speed • Relative humidity (the amount of water in the atmosphere) • Atmospheric pressure (the force we feel from the weight of air above us) • Presence of fog, mist or cloud cover

  4. The Weather Man!

  5. Meteorologists are scientist that predict the weather.

  6. How do we predict weather? • Environment Canada • Methods: • Weather stations • Weather balloons • Satellites • Short term observations • How accurate is the weatherperson?

  7. Weather is created by the interaction between the sun’s rays and waterand air on the Earth • the sun heats the atmosphere and creates winds • water evaporates and condenses forming clouds and precipitation • ocean water moves from the equator to the poles to move heat around the earth

  8. Climate: the average weather in a region over a long period of time, usually 30 years • climate gives a range of temperatures for a region and whether it is likely to snow, rain etc. • determines the types of plants and animals that can live there

  9. During the course of Earth’s history the climate has continually changed, and will continue to change in the future

  10. The World’s Climate Zones

  11. Climate vs. Weather •

  12. Brainstorm! (5 minutes) How does weather affects us… Economically Socially Environmentally

  13. Economic Effects of Climate • Heating and cooling • Creates jobs snow removal, meteorologist • More likely to take car/bus if cold/wet • Snow storm=closed buildings (lose $) • More snow = more shovels, road salt, snow blowers sold • More travelers go to warmer places (winter months)

  14. Social Effects of Climate • Luxury of ski resorts/skating rinks open in winter • Amusement parks, water parks open in summer • Wear certain clothes depending on the weather • Catch colds in winter, allergies in spring/fall • Affect travel plans (cancellations due to weather)

  15. Environmental Effects of Climate • Air conditioning in summer pollution smog global warming • Take car when cold/wet pollution global warming • Sunny outside skin cancer risk • Extreme weather events (tornado, hurricane) cause environmental degradation


  17. Structures of the Atmosphere The atmosphere is separated into layers based on temperature

  18. Structures of the Atmosphere continued…

  19. LOWER Near water ….. • You can remember the factors affecting climate using this simple acronym: • L – Latitude • O – Ocean Currents • W – Wind Patterns • E – Elevation • R – Relief • Near Water – proximity to water

  20. LATITUDE Solar Radiation – radiant energy given off by the sun Thermal Energy – total kinetic energy of the molecules or atoms in a substance

  21. LATITUDE • Latitude controls the amount of solar radiation that reaches the earth • GENERAL RULE.. Farther away from equator = less solar energy WHY?!?!? • Angle of Incidence (angle at which solar rays strike the surface) • Amount of atmosphere solar radiation must pass through

  22. LATITUDE Effects • In areas farther from equator, the same amount of solar energy is spread out over a larger area • Lower temperatures • Lower evaporation rates • It is this differential heating of land surfaces that causes global winds and ocean currents

  23. OCEAN CURRENTS • Driven by wind and differences in temperature and salinity (salt content) • Redistribute heat around the world • Warm currents heat air above water and cause a milder, wetter climate • Cold currents cool air above water and cause a colder, dryer climate

  24. WIND PATTERNS (GLOBAL) • Difference in heating patterns lead to a difference in pressure • This creates global wind patterns as air moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure

  25. ELEVATION • Elevation refers to level above or below sea level • Air temperature decreases as elevation increases • WHY? • Solar radiation only turns to heat when absorbed by matter • The lower you go in the atmosphere, the more the air contains (water vapour, dust, air molecules, etc.) because of the force of gravity • So more solar radiation can be absorbed and turned into heat at lower elevations … i.e. higher temperatures

  26. RELIEF • Mountains naturally cause air masses to rise • As air rises, it expands, cools and condenses • This causes a moist area on one side of the mountain and a RAIN SHADOW (dry climate) on the other side

  27. NEAR WATER • Bodies of water provide a source of moisture to nearby land masses • What cools down and heats up faster??? • Water or land?

  28. Global Warming vs. Climate Change • Global Warming: • An increase in the average global (world-wide) temperature • Although the average global temperature is increasing, there are many places on Earth which are not getting warmer • Climate Change • Refers to long-term changes in weather conditions (not only temperature): • Temperature • Precipitation (rain and snow) • Wind • Severity of storms

  29. Homework Questions • Classify each of the following as either a weather observation for a specific location and day or an aspect of a locatin’s climate. Explain each choice with a short sentence. [Knowledge] • Temperature highs and lows • Precipitation • Hours of sunshine • Wind speed • Humidity • Describe today’s weather in your area using as much information as you can (tip: in addition to standing outside, check and find your location) [Application] • In recent weeks two weather terms have been on the news: polar vortex and frost quake. Use the Internet to find out how each term relates to recent GTA weather. Also determine if the term is an actual scientific term or a term used in the media to help the general population understand the phenomenon. [Application] • Suppose you were marooned on an island. You started collecting weather data so that you could come to a conclusion about the climate of the island. How long would you need to keep weather records before you could make a definite conclusion about climate. [Thinking]