Octavian Augustus Caesar The First Emperor 27BCE-AD14 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Octavian Augustus Caesar The First Emperor 27BCE-AD14
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Octavian Augustus Caesar The First Emperor 27BCE-AD14

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  1. Octavian Augustus CaesarThe First Emperor 27BCE-AD14 • Under Augustus, Rome moves from a republic to empire • From 44-27 BCE was officially named Gaius Julius Caesar. In 27 BCE the Senate named him Augustus Caesar • Power no longer resides with citizens, but a single ruler • Rome enjoys 200 years of peace and prosperity known as Pax Romana • Pax Romana • Disaster and Power

  2. Octavian AugustusThe First Emperor • Augustus Caesar • Creates a lasting system of government • Glorifies Rome with beautiful public buildings • Sets up a civil service to administer the empire • Senate becomes “rubber stamp.” De facto power held by emperor • Rise of Imperial cult

  3. Pax Romana 27 BCE – AD180

  4. The First Roman Dynasty Julo-Claudian Emperors

  5. The First Roman Dynasty Julio-Claudian Emperors • Julio-Claudian Emperors rule for nearly a century • Julius Caesar, nephew Augustus, stepson Tiberius, nephew and stepson Caligula, uncle Claudius Claudius and Empire, and adopted son Nero (child of Agrippina) • The Roman Empire PBS

  6. The Extent of the Roman Empire

  7. Imperial Roman Road System

  8. “May he be luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan" • Expansion reached its zenith under the Emperor Trajan 98-117 (second of the so-called Five Good Emperors. At its peak, the Empire controlled approximately 6,500,000 km² of land surface. Because of its vast extent and long endurance, Roman influence upon the language, religion, architecture, philosophy, law, and government of nations around the world lasts to this day

  9. Roman Emperors • Principate 27 BC – 235·Augustus· Tiberius · Caligula ·Claudius· Nero · Galba · Otho · Vitellius · Vespasian · Titus · Domitian · Nerva ·Trajan· Hadrian · Antoninus Pius ·Marcus Aureliuswith Lucius Verus · Commodus · Pertinax · Didius Julianus · Septimius Severus · Caracalla · Geta · Macrinus with Diadumenian · Elagabalus · Alexander Severus • Crisis 235–284· Maximinus Thrax · Gordian I and Gordian II · Pupienus and Balbinus · Gordian III · Philip the Arab · Decius with Herennius Etruscus · Hostilian · Trebonianus Gallus with Volusianus· Aemilianus · Valerian · Gallienus · Claudius Gothicus · Quintillus · Aurelian · Tacitus · Florianus · Probus · Carus · Carinus · Numerian • Dominate· 284–395·Diocletian· Maximian · Constantius Chlorus · Galerius · Severus · Maxentius · Maximinus Daia · Licinius with Valerius Valens and Martinianus ·Constantine I· Constantine II · Constans I · Constantius II · Julian the Apostate · Jovian · Valentinian I · Valens · Gratian · Valentinian II ·Theodosius I

  10. Marcus Aurelius and the Decline of the Roman Empire • Pax Romana ends in A.D. 180 with death of emperor Marcus Aurelius 161-180. Subsequent emperors are unable to govern and defend the immense empire • A Stoic philosopher, Aurelius' work Meditations written in Greek while on campaign between 170 and 180, is still revered as a literary monument to a government of service and duty • Succeeded by his son Commodus, a real trip…and the beginning of the end of the Roman Empire

  11. Decline of the Roman Empire • Economic Turmoil • Overworked soil, war-torn farmland leads to food shortages • Hostile tribes outside the empire disrupt trade • Inflation weakens trade • By third century A.D. (200s) Roman military in trouble. Soldiers loyal to commanders, not Rome; commanders fighting for throne • Mercenaries hired to fight and defend empire

  12. The Empire in Crisis

  13. Diocletian Splits the Empire in Two • In AD284 EmperorDiocletian restores order, divides empire in two, eastern and western empire with two emperors, one in Greek-speaking East, the other in Latin-speaking West • Diocletian retires 304, rivals compete for power

  14. Decline of the Roman Empire • Constantine becomes emperor of Western Empire in 312. First Christian emperor • Seizes Eastern Empire in 324 and moves Roman capital to Byzantium. eventually renamed Constantinople • Istanbul (Not Constantinople) They Might Be Giants

  15. The End of the Roman Empire • Theodosius the last emperor of unified Roman Empire 395 • Mongol nomads from Asia, the Huns, invade northern borders of empire. Germanic tribes flee Huns, enter Roman lands and sack Rome AD410 • Attila the Hun unites the Huns in 444 and plunders 70 cities in East. Attacks Rome in 452, famine and disease prevents victory • The last Roman emperor falls to Germans in 476; end of Western Empire • East thrives for another thousand years (Byzantine Empire)

  16. Barbarian Invasions 4th-5th Century