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DOGSTAILS: An Introduction to Map Reading. Gale Ekiss Arizona Geographic Alliance Adapted from a lesson by Jody Smothers Marcello Grades 2 to High School 1 class period. National Geography ELEMENT ONE: THE WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS

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dogstails an introduction to map reading

DOGSTAILS: An Introduction to Map Reading

Gale Ekiss

Arizona Geographic Alliance

Adapted from a lesson by Jody Smothers Marcello

Grades 2 to High School

1 class period

standards
National Geography

ELEMENTONE: THE WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS

1. How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective.

Arizona

Grade 2

Strand 4 Geography

Concept 1 The World in Spatial Terms

PO 2 Interpret political and physical maps using the following elements:

a.alpha numeric grids

b.title

c.compass rose - cardinal directions

d.key (legend)

e.symbols

Standards
ela common core standards
Reading

Informational Text

Key Ideas and Details

2.RI.1 Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and howto demonstrateunderstanding of key details in a text.

3.RI.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

Craft and Structure

2.RI.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.

3.RI.4 Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area.

2.RI.5 Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.

3.RI.5 Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently.

ELA Common Core Standards
ela common core standards1
Reading

Informational Text

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

2.RI.7 Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text.

3.RI.7 Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur).

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

AZ.2.RI.10 By the end of year, read and comprehend functional texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 2–3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

AZ.3.RI.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend functional texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

ELA Common Core Standards
slide5
Overview

Map skills are basic to geographic understanding. Students need a system by which to analyze and evaluate maps. DOGSTAILS provides a standard for such assessment and can be applied to commercial maps used in the classroom as well as to maps generated by students.

Purpose

In this lesson, students will learn 9 essential elements for interpreting and creating maps.

materials
Materials
  • Overhead of DOGSTAILS Elements or PowerPoint explaining each element
  • Dogstails Worksheet and Assessment
  • Enough different maps for students to work in pairs
  • DOGSTAILS arrows Xeroxed in different colors of copy paper (1 set for every 2 students)
  • Map for Assessment (same map for every student)
  • 15 Sandwich bags to hold 15 sets of arrows
  • Removable sticky dots (Dots can be found at office supply stores and come in 2 types-removable and permanent. Permanent dots will ruin the maps and arrows.)
objective
Objective

The student will be able to:

  • Name, locate, and use the essential parts of a map.
procedures
Procedures

1. Introduce the term acronym to the students and explain that DOGSTAILS is an example of an acronym.

2. Explain that this is a process that should be used whenever a person deals with a new map. Distribute the DOGSTAILS Worksheet.

procedures1
Procedures

3. Use the DOGSTAILS Elements overhead or Power Point and explain the parts of a map. Students should be recording this information on their DOGSTAILS Worksheet.

acronym dogstails
Acronym--DOGSTAILS
  • What does the “D” stand for?
dogstails
DOGSTAILS

Date

When was the map made?

Is it still reliable?

acronym dogstails1
Acronym--DOGSTAILS
  • What does the “O” stand for?
dogstails1
DOGSTAILS

Orientation

Is there a compass rose?

acronym dogstails2
Acronym--DOGSTAILS
  • What does the “G” stand for?
dogstails2
DOGSTAILS

Grid

Is there a grid?

Is it alpha-numeric or latitude and longitude?

acronym dogstails3
Acronym--DOGSTAILS
  • What does the “S” stand for?
dogstails3
DOGSTAILS

Scale

Is there a scale?

What unit of measurement is it using?

acronym dogstails4
Acronym--DOGSTAILS
  • What does the “T” stand for?
dogstails4
DOGSTAILS

Title

What is the title of the map?

*Always read first

acronym dogstails5
Acronym--DOGSTAILS
  • What does the “A” stand for?
  • We are cheating. It really should be an “C” word.
dogstails5
DOGSTAILS

Author

Who made the map?

*Cartographer

acronym dogstails6
Acronym--DOGSTAILS
  • What does the “I” stand for?
dogstails6
DOGSTAILS

Index

Is there an alphabetical listing of the places on the map?

Ajo = C1

Benson = F1

acronym dogstails7
Acronym--DOGSTAILS
  • What does the “L” stand for?
dogstails7
DOGSTAILS

Legend

Is there a place on the map that explains the symbols used on the map?

acronym dogstails8
Acronym--DOGSTAILS
  • What does the “S” stand for?
dogstails8
DOGSTAILS

Symbols

Are symbols used to represent features on the map?

safety zone

capital city

dogstails9
DOGSTAILS

Situation

Does this

map show

this place

in relation

to another

place?

procedures2
Procedures

4. Divide the students into groups of two. Give each group a different map and a sandwich bag of arrows. Model for the students how to find one of the elements on a map and affix the arrow with the sticky dot at the tip of the arrow. Give students about 5-10 minutes to find as many elements as they can. Remind students that not every map will have every element.

5. Have student take their arrows off and switch maps with another group. Repeat the process of labeling the map with the arrows.

assessment
Assessment
  • When students seem proficient at working in groups to find the map elements, give them the Dogstails Assessment. Give each student the same map (maps can be found at http://geoalliance.asu.edu/azga/ A good choice is Jerusalem’s Old City under Maps (Historical Themes). If desired, you can hand draw elements to fill in missing information so all 9 elements are present.
  • The worksheet can be graded for accuracy. Mastery would be considered 80% or higher.
extensions
Extensions
    • Reinforce the procedure whenever new maps are used. (This works especially well when introducing how to read a road map.)
  • Whenever students create their own maps, have them include the elements of DOGSTAILS.
sources
Sources
  • Labels courtesy of Jeannine Kuropatkin, Mesa Public Schools, Mesa, Arizona
  • Clip art from http://office.microsoft.com
ell adaptation
ELL Adaptation

TOADS

  • The Overview, Purpose, and Objectives stay the same as the original lesson.
  • The DOGSTAILS acronym can be shortened to TOADS for younger children.
ell adaptation4
ELL Adaptation

Key Vocabulary

  • Title – name of map
  • Author – who made map
  • Orientation – showing directions, compass rose
  • Date – the day, month, and year the map was made
  • Scale – a measure to compare distance on map and distance on earth

Scale can be changed to symbols.

ell adaptation5
ELL Adaptation

Additional Materials Needed for ELL

  • Vocabulary word cards
  • Plastic toads to place on the map (optional)
  • Student made booklets/dictionaries
ell adaptation6
ELL Adaptation

Procedures

  • Introduce the term "acronym" to the students and give examples that the students already know (i.e. name of school = Frontier Elementary School but the acronym is FES). (Preparation: Adapting Content, Linking to background) Explain that TOADS are animals (show a picture of one) (Preparation: Adapting Content, Linking to past knowledge) but in this lesson TOADS is an acronym that helps us talk about maps.

2. Explain that TOADS is a way of interpreting maps that should be used whenever a person uses a new map. Show a map of the school or the neighborhood. (Preparation: Adapting Content, Linking to background) Ask students to find things they see on the map. (Scaffolding: Guided practice, comprehensible input) Direct students to find the title.

ell adaptation7
ELL Adaptation

Procedures

3. Continue with each letter in the word TOADS to explain the other parts of a map, showing a word card for each geography vocabulary word in the acronym. T=Title, O=Orientation, A=Author (Cartographer), D=Date, and S=Scale (or S=Symbol). Particular attention is needed on the explanation of scale with younger students. (Integrating Processes: Speaking, Listening)

ell adaptation8
ELL Adaptation

3. Continue with each letter in the word TOADS to explain the other parts of a map, showing a word card for each geography vocabulary word in the acronym. T=Title, O=Orientation, A=Author (Cartographer), D=Date, and S=Scale. Particular attention is needed on the explanation of scale with younger students. (Integrating Processes: Speaking, Listening)

ell adaptation9
ELL Adaptation

4. Divide the students into pairs. (Grouping: Partners) Give each group a different map. Tell each group to find the TOADS elements on their maps. (Scaffolding: Modeling) Students point to the correct areas using the TOAD pointers or placing plastic toads on each map area. (Application: Hands on, Meaningful, Promotes engagement)

*Note-NOT all elements will be

found on ALL maps.

ell adaptation10
ELL Adaptation

5. Students should practice these identification skills on a different map (using pointers or plastic toads) and complete a new worksheet on their own. (Scaffolding: Independent practice; Application: Hands on, Linked to objectives)

6. When students are finished, have them share their answers individually with you or in a small group presentation to the class. (Grouping: Small groups, independent) They may also walk around observing each other's maps, which have been completed using TOADS.

7. Repeat as often as you think.

ell adaptation11
ELL Adaptation

Assessment

Students will correctly identify and point to the 5 components of the TOADS lesson. Students may also build a TOADS dictionary booklet. Students will place answers for each letter of the acronym on the corresponding page of their dictionary. Mastery for geography, reading, and writing will be considered 4 of the 5 components identified correctly. (Assessment: individual, written, and oral)

ell adaptation12
ELL Adaptation

Extensions

  • Reinforce the procedure whenever new maps are used. This activity can be done in learning centers.
  • Whenever students create their own maps, have them include the elements of TOADS or create new dictionary entries for each map they use.