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Oregon Reading First Institute on Beginning Reading I Cohort B. Day 2: Five Big Ideas of Reading Instruction August 24, 2005. Oregon Reading First Institutes on Beginning Reading. Content developed by : Edward J. Kame’enui, Ph. D. Deborah C. Simmons, Ph. D.

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slide1

Oregon Reading First

Institute on Beginning Reading I

Cohort B

Day 2:

Five Big Ideas of Reading Instruction

August 24, 2005

oregon reading first institutes on beginning reading
Oregon Reading FirstInstitutes on Beginning Reading

Content developed by:

Edward J. Kame’enui, Ph. D. Deborah C. Simmons, Ph. D.

Professor, College of Education Professor, College of Education

University of Oregon University of Oregon

Michael D. Coyne, Ph. D. Beth Harn, Ph. D

University of Connecticut University of Oregon

Prepared by:

Patrick Kennedy-Paine Katie Tate

University of Oregon University of Oregon

cohort b ibr 1 day 2 content development
Content developed by:Tricia Travers

Amanda Sanford

Jeanie Mercier Smith

Carol Dissen

Additional support:Deni BasarabaJulia KeplerKatie Tate

Cohort B, IBR 1, Day 2Content Development
copyright
Copyright
  • All materials are copy written and should not be reproduced or used without expressed permission of Dr. Carrie Thomas Beck, Oregon Reading First Center. Selected slides were reproduced from other sources and original references cited.
advantages of implementing a core program
Advantages of Implementing a Core Program

Increasing communication and learning

  • Improving communication
    • Teachers within and across grades using common language and objectives
  • Improving learning
    • Provides students a consistent method or approach to reading which is helpful for all students
    • Provides teachers an instructional sequence of skill presentation and strategies to maximize student learning
    • Provides more opportunity to differentiate

instruction when necessary

essential instructional content
Essential Instructional Content
  • Phonological Awareness: The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words.
  • Alphabetic Principle: The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to read words.
  • Automaticity and Fluency with the Code: The effortless, automatic ability to read words in connected text.
  • Vocabulary Development: The ability to understand (receptive) and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey meaning.
  • Comprehension: The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to extract meaning.
changing emphasis of big ideas

K

1

2

3

Multisyllables

Phonological Awareness

Listening

Alphabetic Principle

Reading

Letter Sounds & Combinations

Reading

Listening

Automaticity and Fluency with the Code

Vocabulary

Comprehension

Changing Emphasis of Big Ideas
design and delivery
Design and Delivery

Features of well-designed programs include:

  • Explicitness of instruction for teacher and student
    • Making it obvious for the student
  • Systematic & supportive instruction
    • Building and developing skills
  • Opportunities for practice
    • Modeling and practicing the skill
  • Cumulative review
    • Revisiting and practicing skills to increase strength
  • Integration of Big Ideas
    • Linking essential skills
objectives
Objectives
  • To define phonological awareness
  • To become familiar with the research behind phonological awareness
  • To identify high priority skills of phonological awareness
  • To review the scope and sequence of phonological awareness instruction in Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura.
  • To identify and implement phonological awareness components within daily Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura lessons.
phonological awareness1
Phonological Awareness

The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words.

critical elements in phonological awareness
Critical Elements in Phonological Awareness
  • The National Reading Panel report (2000) identifies the following elements as essential in Phonological Awareness instruction:

A critical component but not a complete reading program

Focus on 1 or 2 types of PA

Teach in small groups

Teach

explicitly &

systematically

Teach to manipulate sounds with letters

definitions
Definitions
  • Continuous sounds
  • Stop sounds
  • Onset-rime
  • Phoneme
  • Phoneme Blending
  • Phoneme Segmentation
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Phonological Awareness
activity
Activity
  • Please take out your Phonological Awareness Definitions activity sheet
  • Partner up!
  • Read the examples and definitions. Find the idea that matches the definition or example from the word bank. Write it in the box next to the definition or example.
  • Use your definitions sheet to help you if you get stuck
phonemic awareness research
Phonemic Awareness: Research

The best predictor of reading difficulty in kindergarten or first grade is the inability to segment words and syllables into constituent sound units (phonemic awareness).

Lyon 1995

Poor phonemic awareness at four to six years of age is predictive of reading difficulties throughout the elementary years.

Torgesen and Burgess 1998

More advanced forms of phonemic awareness (such as the ability to segment words into component sounds) are more predictive of reading ability than simpler forms (such as being able to detect rhymes).

Nation and Hulme 1997

high priority skills for kindergarten
High Priority Skills for Kindergarten
  • Students should be taught to orally blend separate phonemes starting in mid-kindergarten.
  • Students should be taught to identify the first sound in one-syllable words by the middle of kindergarten at a rate of 25 sounds per minute.
  • Students should segment individual sounds in words at the rate of 35 sounds per minute by the end of kindergarten.
identifying first sound 25 sounds minute by middle of kindergarten
Identifying first sound:25 sounds/minute by middle of kindergarten

Teacher:

Tell me the first sound in the word cat.

Student:

/c/

Teacher:

Listen: mouse… flower…. which begins with the sound /ffff/?

Student:

flower

slide21

Segmenting sounds:35 sounds/minute by end of kindergarten

Teacher:

Tell me all the sounds in the word ‘cat’.

Student:

/c/ …. /a/… /t/

Teacher:

Tell me all the sounds in the word ‘plate’.

Student:

/p/…/l/…/a/…/t/

high priority skills for first grade
High Priority Skills for First Grade
  • Students should blend three and four phonemes into a whole word by the middle of grade 1.
  • Students should segment three and four phoneme words at the rate of 35 phoneme segments per minute by the beginning of grade 1.
  • Student must master blending and segmenting words before they can learn to decode words in print successfully
phonological awareness sequence of instruction continuum
Phonological Awareness Sequence of Instruction Continuum

Concept of Word—comparison and segmentation

Rhyme—recognition and production

Syllable—blending, segmentation, deletion

Onset/Rime—blending, segmentation

Phoneme—matching, blending,segmentation, deletion, and manipulation

slide25

ActivityPhonological Awareness: Sequence of Instruction

  • Take out your “Phonological Awareness Sequence of Instruction” activity worksheet
  • Pair up with a partner.
  • Read the activity
    • Identify what kind of phonological awareness skill is being tested
    • Identify when the skill should be taught (1st, 2nd, 5th?)
  • Put a star next to the most important skill for students to master
debrief phonological awareness sequence of instruction

Rhyming

Syllables

Phonemes

Onset/Rime

Onset/Rime

Rhyming

Syllables

Phonemes

3

2

5

4

3

2

4

5

Concept of word

Concept of word

1

1

DebriefPhonological Awareness: Sequence of Instruction
pattern of instruction within houghton mifflin
Pattern of Instruction within Houghton Mifflin

In kindergarten, phonological awareness is taught in

Units 1-10: Opening Routines, Daily Phonemic Awareness

Units 2-10:Day 1 Phonemic Awareness-Introducing the Alphafriend

Days 2-4 Develop Phonemic Awareness, and in some Connect Sounds to Letters lessons (prelude to Phonics lesson)

In first grade, phonological awareness is taught/reviewed in

Units 1-10: Opening Routines, Daily Phonemic Awareness

Day 1 and occasionally Day 2 in Develop Phonemic Awareness (prelude to Phonics lesson)

pattern of instruction within lectura
Pattern of Instruction within Lectura

In kindergarten, phonological awareness is taught in

Temas 1-10: Actividades para comenzar, Desarrollar la conciencia fonémica

Temas 2-10:Día 1 Conciencia fonémica –presentar el Afamigo

Días 2-4Desarrollar la conciencia fonémica, y conectar sonidos con las letras (antes de la actividad fonética)

In first grade, phonological awareness is taught/reviewed in Temas 1-10: Actividades para comenzar, Conciencia fonémica diaria

Días 1-2 en Desarrollar la conciencia fonémica(antes de la actividad fonética)

blending phonemes kindergarten
Blending PhonemesKindergarten

Play the weather word game. Give children a clue and

the sounds in a word, and they blend and guess the

answer

  • It makes us wet, but helps flowers grow: /r//a//n/. (rain)
  • This is something yellow that warms the earth: /s//u//n/. (sun)

K -Theme 6- Page T17

combinar s labas y fonemas kinder
Combinar Sílabas y FonemasKinder

Combinar Sílabas

Haga un juego de adivinar:

Combínenlas para adivinar qué palabra del poema es:

  • /na/ /do/ (nado)
  • /pa/ /ti/ /no/ (patino)
  • /Me/ /li/ /sa/ (Melisa)

Combinar Fonemas

Antes, cobinamos sílabas para formar palabras. Ahora, voy a decir sonidos por separado y ustedes formen las sílabas.

  • /m/ /a/ (ma)
  • /p/ /a/ (pa)
  • /t/ /a/ (ta)
  • /c/ /o/ (co) K -Tema 4- Pagina T9
blending phonemes 1st grade
Blending Phonemes1st Grade

Tell the children you have some word riddles. they should blend the sounds to form the word. Read the following clues:

  • This is a kind of animal: /p//i//g/. (pig)
  • This is the opposite of little: /b//i//g/. (big)
  • You can do this with a bat: /h//i//t/. (hit)
  • You can do this on a chair: /s//i//t/. (sit)
  • This has a sharp point: /p//i//n/. (pin)
  • A baby wears this to eat: /b//i//b/. (bib)

1st-Theme 1- Page T179

combinar s labas y fonemas grado 1
Combinar Sílabas y FonemasGrado 1

Les voy a decir una rima. ¡Escuchen con cuidado la última palabra! Voy a decir sólo las sílabas. Júntenlas y digan la palabra. Mi mami me /a/ /ma/. Combinen las sílabas. Levanten la mano si saben los sondios de la palabra. (ama)

  • Mi hermana me /a/ /ma/ (ama)
  • A mis hermanos yo los /a/ /mo/ (amo)...

Ahora voy a decir solo los sonidos. Combínenlos para formar las palabras.

  • /m/ /i/ (mi)
  • /m/ /e/ (me)
  • /m/ /i/ /s/ (mis)1 Grado -Tema 1- Pagina T21
activity teaching phonological awareness
ActivityTeaching Phonological Awareness
  • Pair up with a partner.
  • Find a lesson that teaches phonological awareness in your teacher’s edition (Houghton Mifflin Reading or Lectura).
  • Practice teaching that section of phonological awareness activities as if you were teaching it to a student
objectives1
Objectives
  • To define phonological awareness
  • To become familiar with the research behind phonological awareness
  • To identify high priority skills of phonological awareness
  • To review the scope and sequence of phonological awareness instruction in Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura.
  • To identify and implement phonological components within daily Houghton Mifflin & Lectura lessons.
slide39

Houghton Mifflin Reading and Lectura

Alphabetic Principle K-3

objectives2
Objectives
  • You will learn:
  • To define alphabetic principle
  • To become familiar with the research on the alphabetic principle
  • To identify the high priority skills of alphabetic principle
  • To identify and implement alphabetic principle instruction within daily Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura lessons.
what is the alphabetic principle
What is the Alphabetic Principle?
  • The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to form words.
    • The understanding that words in spoken language are represented in print.
    • Sounds in words relate to the letters that represent them.

(Liberman & Liberman, 1990)

alphabetic principle
Alphabetic Principle

Alphabetic Principle is composed of three main components

  • Letter-sound correspondence: Understanding that letters represent sounds
  • Blending: Understanding that we blend sounds from left to right
  • Phonological Recoding: Blending sounds together to represent a word that has meaning
definitions1
Definitions
  • Alphabetic Principle
  • Blending
  • Continuous Sound
  • Decodable Text
  • Decoding
  • Explicit Phonics Instruction
  • High Frequency Words
  • Irregular Word
  • Letter-Sound Correspondence
  • Nonsense word or Pseudoword
  • Phonological Recoding
  • Regular Word
  • Stop Sound
activity1
Activity
  • Please take out your Alphabetic Principle Definitions activity sheet
  • Partner up!
  • Read the examples and definitions. Find the idea that matches the definition or example from the word bank. Write it in the box next to the definition or example.
  • Use your definitions sheet to help you if you get stuck
what the research says about alphabetic principle ap
What the Research Says About Alphabetic Principle (AP)
  • A primary difference between good and poor readers is the ability to use letter-sound correspondences to identify words. (Juel, 1991)
  • Difficulties in decoding and word recognition are at the core of most reading difficulties. (Lyon, 1997)
  • Students who acquire and apply the alphabetic principle early in their reading careers reap long-term benefits. (Stanovich,1986)
  • Because our language is alphabetic, decoding is an essential and primary means of recognizing words. There are simply too many words in the English language to rely on memorization as a primary word identification strategy. (Bay Area Reading Task Force, 1996)
what does the national reading panel say about alphabetic principle
What Does the National Reading Panel Say About Alphabetic Principle?

The meta-analysis revealed that systematic instruction in phonics produces significant benefits for students in kindergarten through 6th grade and for children having difficulty learning to read.

These facts and findings provide converging evidence that explicit, systematic phonics instruction is a valuable and essential part of a successful classroom reading program.

Report of the National Reading Panel, 2000

what alphabetic skills does a student need to master to read this regular word
What Alphabetic Skills Does a Student Need to Master to Read This Regular Word?

man

  • Reading goes left to right
  • Knowledge of letter sounds for ‘m’, ‘a’, and ‘n’
  • Blending
  • Phonological recoding

Reading is a complex process- WeMUSTteach students these skills if we want them to become successful readers

why teach systematic explicit phonics instruction
Why Teach Systematic & Explicit Phonics Instruction?

By teaching explicitly and systematically:

  • We teach a strategy for attacking words students don’t know.
  • We can teach ALL students to use these strategies.
  • We don’t leave it up to the students to infer the strategy, because the struggling reader won’t be able to guess it.

We must equip students with a strategy for them to attack text in the real world.

what skills does alphabetic principle include

Letter

Sound

Correspondences

Advanced

Word & Structural

Analysis

Skills

Irregular

Word

Reading

Regular

Word

Reading

Reading

in text

What Skills Does Alphabetic Principle Include?

.

what skills does alphabetic principle include1
What Skills Does Alphabetic Principle Include?

Letter-Sound Correspondences:Knowing the sounds that correspond to letters (the sound of b is /b/, the sound of a is /aaa/)

Regular Word Reading/Spelling: Reading/spelling words in which each letter represents its most common sound (mat, sled, fast)

Irregular Word Reading/Spelling:Reading/spelling words in which one or more letter does not represent its most common sound (the, have, was)

Advanced Word Analysis Skills:Reading/spelling words that include letter patterns and combinations (make, train, string)

Structural Analysis: Reading/spelling multisyllabic words and words with prefixes and suffixes (mu-sic, re-port, tall-est, Wis-con-sin)

regular word reading progression

Saying WholeWord

Sight Word

Automatic Word Reading

Sounding out

word in your

head, if necessary,and saying the whole word

Saying each individual sound and pronouncing whole word

Reading the word without sounding it out

Regular Word Reading Progression

SoundingOutSaying each

individual sound

out loud

using curriculum maps
Using Curriculum Maps
  • Review the curriculum map for your grade to answer the following questions:
    • What are the high priority skills for the next 3 months? ______________________________
    • What other skills may be necessary to teach before the high priority skills? __________________________________
    • What skills do you predict to be difficult for some children? _________________________
alphabetic principle instruction
Alphabetic Principle Instruction
  • PA warm up
  • Letter/Sound Correspondence
  • Blending (Phonics/Decoding Strategy)
  • Decodable text
  • Dictation
  • Word work
  • High-Frequency Words
alphabetic principle instruction1
Alphabetic Principle Instruction
  • PA warm up
  • Letter/Sound Correspondence
  • Blending (Phonics/Decoding Strategy)
  • Decodable text
  • Dictation
  • Word work
  • High-Frequency Words
connecting sounds to letters
Connecting Sounds to Letters

“Very early in the course of instruction, one wants the students to understand that all twenty-six of those strange little symbols that comprise the alphabet are worth learning and discriminating one from the other because each stands for one of the sounds that occur in spoken words.”

Adams, 1990

kindergarten example connecting sounds to letters
Kindergarten Example:Connecting Sounds to Letters
  • Kindergarten Theme 6, pT20
  • Connect Sounds to Letters
  • Beginning Letter Display the Larry Lion card and have children name the letter on the picture. Say: The letter l stands for the sound /l/, as in lion. When you see an l, remember Larry Lion. That will help you remember the sound /l/.
  • Write lion on the board. Underline the l. What is the first letter in the word lion? Lion starts with /l/, so l is the first letter I write for lion.
kindergarten ejemplo conectar los sonidos con las letras
Kindergarten Ejemplo:Conectar los sonidos con las letras

Kinder Tema 4, pT20

Conectar los sonidos con las letras

  • Muestre la tarjeta de Beba Ballena y pida a los niños que nombren la letra. Diga: La letra b representa el sonido /b/, como en ballena. Cuando vean una b, acuérdense de Beba Ballena. Esto les ayudará a recordar el sonido /b/.
  • Escriba ballena en el pizarrón y subraye la b. ¿Cuál es la primera letra en la palabra ballena? Ballena empieza con /b/, asi que, b es la primera letra que uso para escribir ballena.
alphabetic principle instruction2
Alphabetic Principle Instruction
  • PA warm up
  • Letter/Sound Correspondence
  • Blending (Phonics/ Decoding Strategy)
  • Decodable text
  • Dictation
  • Word work
  • High-Frequency Words
blending
Blending
  • Blending: The process of combining individual sounds or word parts to form whole words either orally or in print
  • Example: combining the speech sounds /c/, /a/, and /t/ to form the word cat.
two types of blending
Two Types of Blending
  • Sound by sound blending: each sound is identified and produced one at a time, then blended together. /mmm/-/aaaaa/-/nnnnn/-- man
  • Continuous blending: sometimes called ‘whole word blending’. Each sound is stretched out and strung to the next sound in a word without pausing between sounds /mmmm//aaaa//nnnnn/- man
grade 1 example blending
Grade 1 Example:Blending
  • Grade 1, Theme 9, page T145
  • Blending Routine 1
  • Place Large letter cards d, r, a, and w together. Have children blend the sounds and pronounce the word on their own. Call on volunteers to use draw in a sentence
lectura conexi n de letras y sonidos combinar los sonidos
Lectura: Conexión de letras y sonidosCombinar los sonidos

Grado 1-Tema 1, p. T86: Conexión de letras y sonidos

  • Muestre la Tarjeta de dibujos sopa. Esto es sopa. /s/ es el primer sonido de la palabra sopa.Escriba la letra s en el pizarrón. S representa el sonido /s/. Diganme el sonido de la letra s.
  • Escriba o después de s. Miren cómo combino los sonidos de las letras. Demuestre cómo combinar los sonidos mientras señala las letras: /sssss//oooo/-/so/
  • Ahora les toca a Uds. Combinen los sonidos mientras toco las letras.

sa se si so su

teaching students to read big words
Teaching Students to Read Big Words

1. Blending

Two-Syllable Words

Emphasized: Grades 1-2

2. Teaching of

Common Affixes

Emphasized: Grades 1-3

3. Syllabication

Instruction

Emphasized:

Grades 2-3

Teaching Word Attack Procedures

teaching students to read big words1
Teaching Students to Read Big Words

Teaching a

Word-Attack Procedure

Teacher shows students how to

attack big words on their own and prompts use of procedure whenever students are reading.

teaching students to read big words2
Teaching Students to Read Big Words

1. Blending

Two-Syllable Words

Teacher supports “chunking”

by showing syllable breaks

with procedure.

Emphasized: Grades 1-2

grade 2 example blending two syllable words
Grade 2 Example:Blending Two-Syllable Words

Grade 2, Theme 6, Page 328I

Longer Words with igh, ie

Write fighter and sound it out. Ask children how many syllables they hear. Ask what vowel sound they hear in the first syllable. (two; /I/) Underline igh and point out that those letters spell the long i sound and stay together in a syllable.

  • Count the vowels to show there are two syllables. Divide fighter into syllables.
  • Help children sound out each syllable and blend the syllables to read the word.
  • Repeat with highlight, frightful.

fighter dried

highlight fries

frightful replied

grado 2 ejemplo descifrar palabras largas
Grado 2 Ejemplo:Descifrar palabras largas

Grado 2, Tema 1, página 44J:

Conectar sonidos y letras:

Escriba las palabras nido, nudo, tapa, moto en el pizarrón. Voy a combinar estas sílabas para hacer una palabra completa. Miren. Toque cada sílaba. /ni/ /do/ -nido.

Ahora Uds. Digan las sílabas y digan la palabra completa. Toque cada sílaba, y mueva su mano bajo la palabra completa.

ni do

nu do

ta pa

mo to

teaching students to read big words3
Teaching Students to Read Big Words

2. Teaching of

Common Affixes

un-, dis-, re-,-s, -es, -ed, -ing, -ly, -tion

-mente, -ido, -ida, -ito, -ita, -ado, -ada

Teacher supports “chunking”

by showing students the affixes.

Emphasized: Grades 1-3

grade 2 example teaching of common affixes
Grade 2 Example:Teaching of Common Affixes

Grade 2, Theme 6, Page 325C

Practice

Write the words shown and have children copy them. Have children write the base form of the word next to the inflected form. Then have volunteers orally blend each word.

Have children completePractice Book page 162.

hugged hugging

shopped shopping

fanned fanning

trapped trapping

batted batting

knotted knotting

knitted knitting

grado 3 ejemplo descifrar palabras largas
Grado 3 Ejemplo:Descifrar palabras largas

Grado 3, Tema 4, p. 39E: Sufijos –dad, -tad, -ción, -sión

Enseñar

Escriba las palabras oscuridad, amistad, invitación y diversión en el pizarrón. Rodee cada sufijo.

Un sufijo es un grupo de letras que se añade al final de la raíz de una palabra. –dad y –tad significan “caractarística de algo”. -ción y –tión significan “acción de”.

Demuestre como leer la palabra en sílabas.

Escriba las palabras claridad, invitación. Pida a un voluntario que rodee cada sufijo, que lea la palabra y que diga su significado.

oscuridad amistad invitación

diversión

teaching students to read big words4
Teaching Students to Read Big Words

3. Syllabication

Instruction

Dividing words into

syllable patterns and types

(closed, open, vowel team, silent-e,

R-controlled, consonant-le)

Emphasized: Grades 2-3

grade 3 example syllable instruction

Think Aloud

Grade 3 Example:Syllable Instruction

Grade 3, Theme 1, Page 91E

Modeling

Display the following sentence and model how to decode markets:

I will go to the markets.

If I write V under the vowels and C under the consonants, I see that this word has the VCCV pattern. So I’ll split the word between the consonants r and k. / MAHR•kihtz / That makes sense because a market is a place to buy things.

grado 3 ejemplo descifrar palabras largas1

oficina señaló

Grado 3 Ejemplo:Descifrar palabras largas

Grado 3, Tema 1, página 51E:

Análisis estructural: División en sílabas

Escriba las palabras oficina y señaló en el pizarrón. Voy a sepárar las palabras en sílabas. Miren. Toque cada sílaba. /o/ /fi/ /ci/ /na/-oficina.

Ahora ustedes. Digan las sílabas y digan la palabra completa. Toque cada sílaba, y mueva su mano bajo la palabra completa.

Explique la regla para dividir palabras en sílabas y demuestre como hacerlo con las palabras señaló y muchísimo.

activity2
Activity
  • Partner up with another person in your grade.
  • Find the lesson from the box below your teacher’s edition.
  • Practice teaching part of the lesson to your partner as if you were presenting the lesson to students.
  • Discuss whether the lesson was easy to follow & clear.
alphabetic principle instruction3
Alphabetic Principle Instruction
  • PA warm up
  • Letter/Sound Correspondence
  • Blending (Decoding and Word Reading)
  • Decodable text
  • Dictation
  • Word work
  • High-Frequency Words
definition and purpose of decodable text
Definition and Purposeof Decodable Text

Definition: Text in which most words (i.e., 80%) are wholly decodable and the majority of the remaining words are previously taught sight words, including both high-frequency words and story words.

Purpose: Instruction should always provide students opportunities to apply what they are learning in the context of use. Decodable text builds automaticity and fluency in beginning readers. It is used as an intervening step between explicit skill acquisition and students’ ability to read authentic literature.

reading decodable text
Reading Decodable Text
  • Student engagement with the text is critical!
  • Students must be prompted to track the text by pointing under (not over or on) the text with their finger to ensure they are actually looking at the words.
  • Teacher MUST monitor student response to make sure students are not just parroting students next to them.
  • Students need to have sufficient practice with word reading (blending) tasks prior to reading the decodable text to ensure they are successful.
  • Students who struggle with reading decodable text need to have opportunities in small groups to read and be monitored more closely by the teacher. This will increase success with the time spent reading during whole-group instruction.
houghton mifflin phonics decoding strategy poster a grade 1
Houghton Mifflin Phonics/Decoding Strategy-Poster A - Grade 1
  • Look at the letters from left to right.
  • Think about the sounds for the letters.
  • Blend the sounds to read the word.
  • Ask yourself: Is it a word I know? Does it make sense in what I am reading?
houghton mifflin phonics decoding strategy poster b grade 1
Houghton MifflinPhonics/Decoding Strategy Poster B - Grade 1
  • Look at the letters from left to right.
  • Think about the sounds for the letters, and look for word parts you know.
  • Blend the sounds to read the word.
  • Ask yourself: Is it a word I know? Does it make sense in what I am reading?
  • If not, ask yourself: What else can I try?
phonics decoding strategy grades 2 6
Phonics/Decoding StrategyGrades 2-6
  • Look carefully at the word.
  • Look for word parts you know and think about the sounds for the letters.
  • Blend the sounds to read the word.
  • Ask yourself: Is it a word I know? Does it make sense in what I am reading?
  • If not, ask yourself: What else can I try?
alphabetic principle instruction4
Alphabetic Principle Instruction
  • PA warm up
  • Letter/Sound Correspondence
  • Blending (Decoding and Word Reading)
  • Decodable text
  • Dictation
  • Word work
  • High-Frequency Words
dictation definition and purpose
Dictation—Definition and Purpose

Definition: Teacher regularly dictates words containing previously taught sound/spellings and students use their sound/spelling knowledge and the sound/spelling cards to spell the words. Instruction progresses to sentences including previously taught irregular high-frequency words.

Purpose: Dictation connects the decoding (reading) process to the encoding (writing or spelling) process by demonstrating that the sound/spellings students use to read can also be used to communicate through writing.

kindergarten example dictation

Penmanship Rhyme: L

Make a tall, straight line that you start on top. Come down to the bottom go out, and stop.

PenmanshipRhyme: L

Small l looks like a stick. Just one straight line.It’s easy and quick.

1

1

2

Kindergarten Example:Dictation

Kindergarten, Theme 6, Page T20

Penmanship

Writing L, l Tell children that now they’ll learn to write the letters that stand for /l/: capital L and small l. Write each letter as you recite the penmanship rhymes. Chant each rhyme as children “write” the letter in the air.

kinder ejemplo dictado

Rima de caligrafía: L

Larga y delgada como hilo de seda baja y vuelta a la derecha.

Rima de caligrafía: l

Hilo de lino delgado y fino baja tranquilo y se acaba el hilo

1

1

2

Kinder Ejemplo:Dictado

Kinder, Tema 4, página T75

Caligrafía

Escribir L, l Explique a los niños que van a aprender a escribir las letras que representan el sonido /l/: L mayúscula y la l minúscula. Escriba cada letra conforme recita la rima de caligrafía. Los niños pueden cantar la rima mientras “escriben” la letra en el aire.

grade 1 example dictation
Grade 1 Example:Dictation

Grade 1, Theme 1, Page T26

Connect Sounds to Spelling and Writing

Say: Listen as I say mug. What sound do you hear at the beginning of mmmug?

(m) Model writing m. Have several children write m on the board as they say /m/. Repeat for s, c, t, using sad, cap, tip. Then have children tell you what letter to write last in bus, him, pot.

grado 1 ejemplo dictado
Grado 1 Ejemplo:Dictado

Grado 1, Tema 1, página T26

Conexión de sonidos con la ortografía y la escritura

Diga: Escuchen cuando digo la palabra erizo. Escuchen /eeeee/rizo. El primer sonido que escucho es /e/, entonces, escribo e.

Muestre cómo se escribe la letra e. Dé a los niños papel para que practiquen y escriban e. Continúe con las demás vocales en la página 1 del Cuaderno de práctica.

grade 2 example dictation
Grade 2 Example:Dictation

Grade 2, Theme 6, Page 328J

Connect Sounds to Spelling and Writing

Dictate Words with igh, ie Dictate and have children write words such as tight, sigh, die, high, tried. As necessary, help children by pointing out the appropriate spelling of the long i sound on the Sound/Spelling Card. Then write the words on the board, and have children proofread and correct their work.

Dictate the following sentence: The baby cried and Mom sighed. Then display the sentence, and have children circle their mistakes and rewrite the words correctly.

grado 2 ejemplo dictado
Grado 2 Ejemplo:Dictado

Grado 2, Tema 6, página 328C

Conectar sonidos con la ortografía y la escritura

Dictado de palabras Pida a los niños que escriban caimán, aceite, rey, bailar. Escriba las palabras en el pizarrón y pida a los niños que corrijan sus trabajos.

Dicte: Hoy le voy a dar a Moisés un tambor muy grande. Muestre la oración y pida a los niños que rodeen con un círculo sus errores y que vuelvan a escribir las palabras correctamente.

alphabetic principle instruction5
Alphabetic Principle Instruction
  • PA warm up
  • Letter/Sound Correspondence
  • Blending (Decoding and Word Reading)
  • Decodable text
  • Dictation
  • Word work
  • High-Frequency Words
word work definition and purpose
Word Work Definition and Purpose

Definition: Word work is an umbrella term encompassing all the building, sorting, and manipulating activities used to practice sound/spelling patterns in words.

Purpose: SBRR tells us that children need 4-14 repetitions of, or opportunities to work with, a sound/spelling for it to become embedded in their memory.

Word work, along with blending and reading decodable text, helps accomplish this need for repetition.

alphabetic principle instruction6
Alphabetic Principle Instruction
  • PA warm up
  • Letter/Sound Correspondence
  • Blending (Decoding and Word Reading)
  • Decodable text
  • Dictation
  • Word work
  • High-Frequency Words
high frequency words
High-Frequency Words
  • A small group of words that account for a large percentage of the words in print. Many high-frequency words are irregular, that is, not readily decodable by sounding out.

Only 100 words account for approximately 50 percent of the words in English print.

Fry, Fountoukidis and Polk, The New Reading Teacher’s Book of Lists 1985

The quick and automatic recognition of the most common words appearing in text is necessary for fluent reading.

Blevins, Phonics from A to Z 1998

words in the english language
Words in the English Language
  • 50% are wholly decodable
  • 37% are only off by one sound
  • 50% of the words we read are made up of the first 107 high-frequency words.

Hanna, P. R., J. S. Hanna, R. E. Hodges, and E. H. Rudorf, Jr. 1966. Phoneme-grapheme correspondences as cues to spelling improvement. Washington, DC: U.S. Office of Educ.

houghton mifflin reading lectura high frequency word pattern of instruction
Houghton Mifflin Reading/Lectura High-Frequency Word Pattern of Instruction

Kindergarten

See Daily Lesson Plans Learning to Read band of instruction listed under Opening Routines Word Pattern Board andHigh-Frequency Word Spiral Review and Word Work band of instruction listed under Word Pattern Board.

Grade 1

See Daily Lesson Plans Learning to Read band of instruction listed under High-Frequency Words and Word Work band of instruction listed under Word Pattern Board.

kindergarten example high frequency words
Kindergarten Example:High-Frequency Words

Kindergarten, Theme 6, Page T22

Teach

Tell children that today they will learn to read and write a word that they will often see in stories. Say is and use it in context.

A lion is big. A mouse is small. A lion is loud. A mouse is quiet.

Write is on the board and have children spell it as you point to the letters. Say: Spell is with me, i-s, is. Then lead a cheer, clapping on each beat, to help children remember the spelling:

i-s, is! i-s, is!

kinder ejemplo palabras de uso frecuente
Kinder Ejemplo:Palabras de uso frecuente

Kinder, Tema 4, página T22

Enseñar

Diga a los niños que aprenderán a leer y escribir un, una palabra que verán a menudo en los cuentos. Diga un y úsela en contexto.

Tengo un juguete. Juegan con un tren. Es un tapete. Necesito un tenedor.

Escriba un en el pizarrón y pida a los niños que la deletreen mientras señala cada letra.Deletreen un conmigo, u-n, un. Pida a los niños que repitan algunas frases: un perro, un libro, un pájaro. Luego, pídales que utilicen la palabra un para responder a las preguntas: ¿Qué animal hace “guau, guau”?(un perro)¿Qué lees?(un libro)¿Qué animal vuela?(un pájaro)

grade 2 example high frequency words
Grade 2 Example:High Frequency Words

Grade 2, Theme 6, Page 328K

Riddle Have children make up riddles about words from the Word Pattern Board. Have partners or small groups try to guess the answers to the riddles. Also provide a brief cumulative review of previously taught high-frequency words.

Word Pattern Board

alphabet

heart

mind

high frequency words in spanish
High Frequency Words in Spanish
  • Because Spanish text has a more transparent orthography (i.e. all words are decodable once students are taught advanced decoding skills.) the use of the high frequency word instruction diminishes in later grades-the focus is on learning advanced decoding skills and accurately and fluently decoding words and building automaticity with word recognition.
objectives3
Objectives
  • You will learn:
  • To define alphabetic principle
  • To become familiar with the research on the alphabetic principle
  • To identify the high priority skills of alphabetic principle
  • To identify and implement alphabetic principle instruction within daily Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura lessons.
objectives4
Objectives
  • You will learn:
  • To define vocabulary instruction and relevant skills
  • Research behind vocabulary instruction
  • High priority skills of vocabulary
  • To identify and implement vocabulary components within daily Houghton Mifflin Reading and Lectura lessons
essential instructional content1
Essential Instructional Content
  • Phonological Awareness: The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words.
  • Alphabetic Principle: The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to read words.
  • Automaticity and Fluency with the Code: The effortless, automatic ability to read words in connected text.
  • Vocabulary Development: The ability to understand (receptive) and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey meaning.
  • Comprehension: The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to extract meaning.
vocabulary development
Vocabulary Development

The ability to understand (receptive) and

use (expressive) words to acquire and

convey meaning.

vocabulary knowledge
Vocabulary Knowledge
  • What is it? . . .
    • Expressive Vocabulary: Requires a speaker or writer to produce a specific label for a particular meaning.
    • Receptive Vocabulary: Requires a reader or listener to associate a specific meaning with a given label as in reading or listening.
critical elements in vocabulary knowledge
Critical Elements in Vocabulary Knowledge
  • The National Reading Panel report (2000) indicates the following components as essential in Vocabulary Knowledge:

Preinstruction can have significant effects on learning.

Multiple Methods

Direct & Indirect

Assessment should match instruction.

Repetition &

Multiple Exposures to Words In Varied Contexts

Promise of computer technology

meaningful differences
Meaningful Differences

Hart & Risley 1995, 2002

importance of independent reading
Importance of Independent Reading

Research has shown that children who read even ten minutes a day outside of school experience substantially higher rates of vocabulary growth between second and fifth grade than children who do little or no reading.

Anderson & Nagy, 1992

high priority skills for kindergarten1
High Priority Skills for Kindergarten

By the end of Kindergarten students will:

  • Name pictures of common objects
  • Use words to describe location, size, color, and shape
  • Use names and labels of basic concepts
  • Learn new vocabulary through stories and instruction
high priority skills for grade 1 2 and 3
High Priority Skills for Grade 1, 2 and 3

By the end of grades 1,2, and 3 students will

  • Learn and use unfamiliar words that are introduced in stories and texts.
  • Increase their knowledge of vocabulary through independent reading.
two types of vocabulary instruction
Two Types of Vocabulary Instruction

Word-learning

strategy instruction

Specific word

instruction

slide124
Specific word instruction

Intentional vocabulary instruction in specific concepts and word meanings

critical methods for specific word instruction
Critical Methods for Specific Word Instruction
  • Multiple exposures
  • Use synonyms and antonyms
  • Make up a novel sentence
  • Classify with other words
  • Direct definitions
  • Relate the definition to one's own experiences
  • Use visuals to demonstrate word meanings
kindergarten example specific word instruction multiple exposure using visuals
Kindergarten Example: Specific Word Instruction-Multiple Exposure & Using Visuals
  • Vocabulary: Kindergarten Theme 1, Week 2, Page T57
  • Vocabulario: Kinder, Tema 1, Semana 2, página T57
  • Naming Words: Parts of the Body
  • Speaking and Viewing: Using the Theme Poster art, help children describe the picture of the Gingerbread Man. Point to his head, arms, feet. Discuss his features: nose, mouth, and eyes. Explain that they are made with raisins and icing.
  • Recite the familiar refrain from The Gingerbread Man: “Run, run, as fast as you can. You can’t catch me I’m the Gingerbread Man!” Have children commit the words to memory.
  • Have children pose like the Gingerbread Man, pointing to their heads, eyes, noses, mouths, arms, hands, legs and feet. Say, “This cookie has arms, legs, a head, eyes, and a mouth just like people have.”
kindergarten example specific word instruction multiple exposure using visuals continued
Kindergarten Example: Specific Word Instruction Multiple Exposure & Using Visuals (continued)
  • “Each of our body parts has a name. Let’s name them. I’ll say the word. You point: eyes, nose, mouth, feet, hands. These words are called naming words.”
  • “Now I’ll point and you give me the naming word.” (Point to ears, hair, shoulders, elbow, hand.)
  • “There are many more words for parts of the body. Who can point to them?” (neck, wrist, ankle, foot, toe, finger, thumb, back, chest)
  • End the oral language portion of the lesson by singing the familiar song “Head, Shoulders, Knees, and Toes.” If children aren’t familiar with the song, teach them to point as they sing.
grade 1 example specific word instruction multiple exposures classify with other words
Grade 1 Example: Specific Word InstructionMultiple Exposures & Classify with other Words

Vocabulary: Grade 1, Theme 1, Week 1, Page T54

Names for Animals

Reread page 15 of I am Six, point to each word as you read. Ask children to find the words that name animals. (snake, mouse, hamster)

  • Ask children to name other animals. As children suggest more animal names, write them on a word web. Periodically stop and read the web with the class, pointing to each animal name as you read.
  • Review the web once again, and have children suggest other animals to add to the web.
  • Remind children that they can use these words in their writing.
grado 1 ejemplo specific word instruction multiple exposures classify with other words
Grado 1 Ejemplo: Specific Word InstructionMultiple Exposures & Classify with other Words

Vocabulario: Grado 1, Tema 1, Semana 1, página T54

Nombres de los familiares

Vuelvan a leer Amo a Memo y pida a los niños que señalen las palabras mientras van leyendo. Pídales que busquen las palabras que nombran a los miembros de la familia. (Papi, Mami, Memo)

  • Pida a los niños que nombren a otros miembros de la familia. Escriba sus respuestas en el pizarrón formando una red de palabras. Deténgase por momentos y lea la red de palabras señalando el nombre de cada miembro de la familia mientras los va leyendo.
  • Repase la red de palabras con los niños y pregúnteles si se acuerdan de algún otro miembro de la familia.
  • Recuerde a los niños que pueden usar estas palabras cuando escriban.
grade 2 example specific word instruction synonyms antonyms
Grade 2 Example: Specific Word InstructionSynonyms & Antonyms
  • Vocabulary: Grade 2, Theme 1, Selection 2, page 79I
  • Synonyms
  • Teach
  • Ask children to listen as you read these sentences: Julius liked to twirl when he danced. Julius liked to turn when he danced. Julius liked to spin when he danced.
  • Repeat the words twirl, turn, spin, and ask children to think about the meaning of each word. Lead children to conclude that the words have almost the same meaning. Tell children that the words have the same, or almost the same, meaning are called synonyms. Point out that knowing synonyms can help children as they read, and can also help them make their writing and speaking more interesting.
grade 2 example specific word instruction synonyms antonyms continued
Grade 2 Example: Specific Word InstructionSynonyms & Antonyms (continued)
  • Display this sentence from page 56 of Julius: Julius made big messes and spread the newspaper everywhere before anyone could read it.
  • Ask each child to write on a slip of paper a synonym that could be used in this sentence to replace big. Have a volunteer restate what a synonym is. Ask each child to read the sentence aloud with the synonym she or he wrote.
  • Practice
  • Display Transparency 1-14. Ask a volunteer to read the two lists of words. Have partners work together to match synonyms in the two lists. Then ask each partner to choose three words from the list. The partner says a sentence with the word. The other partner repeats the sentence, inserting the synonym.
grado 2 ejemplo specific word instruction synonyms antonyms
Grado 2 Ejemplo: Specific Word InstructionSynonyms & Antonyms
  • Destrazas de vocabulario: Grado 2, Tema 1, página 79I
  • Sinónimos
  • Enseñar
  • Pida a los niños que escuchen mientras lee las oraciones: Julio protegía a Maya por la noche. Julio cuidaba a Maya por la noche. Julio defendía a Maya por la noche.
  • Repita las palabras protegía, cuidaba, defendía y pida a los niños que piensen en el significado de cada palabra. Guíe a los niños para que concluyan que las palabras tienen casi el mismo signficado. Dígales que las palabras que tienen el mismo, o casi el mismo, significado se llaman sinónimos. Señale que saber Sinónimos pueden ayudarles a comprender lo que leen y puede hacer que hablen y escriben en forma más interesante.
grado 2 ejemplo specific word instruction synonyms antonyms continued
Grado 2 Ejemplo: Specific Word InstructionSynonyms & Antonyms (continued)
  • Muestre esta oración de la página 56 de Julio:Julio lo ensuciaba todo y esparcía las pájinas del periódico antes de que nadie lo hubiera leído.
  • Pida a cada niño que anote un sinónimo que podría usarse en esta oración para reemplazar a leído. Pida a un voluntario para que vuelva a decir qué es un sinónimo. Pida a cada niño que lea la oración en voz alta incluyendo el sinónimo que escribió.
  • Practicar
  • Muestre la Transperencia 1-14. Pida a un voluntario para que lea las dos listas de palabras. Pida a los niños que trabajen en parejas y que emparejen los sinónimos de las dos listas. Luego, pida a cada compañero que escoja tres palabras de la lista. Un niño dice una oración que contiene la palabra. El otro compañero repite la oración, insertando el sinónimo para la palabra.
slide134
Word-learning strategy instruction

Strategies to help students determine the meaning of unfamiliar words on their own.

word learning strategies commonly taught
Word-Learning StrategiesCommonly Taught
  • dictionaries and other reference aids
  • word parts
  • context clues
steps in explicit strategy instruction
Steps in Explicit Strategy Instruction
  • Direct explanation
  • Modeling
  • Guided practice
  • Feedback
  • Application

Dickson, Collins, Simmons, and Kame’enui, 1998

grade 3 example word learning strategy instruction
Grade 3 Example:Word-Learning Strategy Instruction

Developing Key vocabulary: Grade 3, Theme 1, Week 1, Page 17A

  • Use Transparency 1-1 to introduce vocabulary words from The Lost and Found.
  • Model how to figure out the meaning of the word situations from clues in the sentence.
  • For the remaining sentence, ask students to use what they know to figure out the Key Vocabulary word. Have students explain how they figured out each word.

Remind students that it’s helpful to use Phonics/Decoding Strategy when they read. For students who need more help with decoding, use the review below.

Unlike real life, characters in a fantasy often deal with strange settings, events, and situations.

grado 3 ejemplo word learning strategy instruction
Grado 3 Ejemplo:Word-Learning Strategy Instruction

Vocabulario: Grado 3, Tema 1, Semana 1, página 17A

  • Use la Transparencia 1-1 para ayudarlos a desarrollar el conocimiento del Vocabulario clave.
  • Demuestre cómo usar las claves de contexto para hallar el significado de la palabra situaciones.
  • Para cada oración restante, pida a los estudiantes que hallen las claves de contexto y que definan cada palabra del Vocabulario clave.

A diferencia de la vida real, a menudo los personajes de un cuento fantástico se enfrentan a ambientes, sucesos, y situaciones extrañas.

activity specific word instruction in hm reading and lectura
Activity: Specific Word Instruction in HM Reading and Lectura
  • Partner up!
  • Each partner, practice the vocabulary instruction listed below for your grade-level. Note which method you used.
objectives5
Objectives
  • You will learn:
  • To define vocabulary instruction and relevant skills
  • Research behind vocabulary instruction
  • High priority skills of vocabulary
  • To identify and implement vocabulary components within daily Houghton Mifflin Reading and Lectura lessons
slide141

Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura

Comprehension & Fluency

objectives6
To define comprehension instruction and relevant skills

Research behind comprehension instruction

High priority skills of comprehension

To identify and implement comprehension components within daily Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura lessons

Objectives
comprehension1
Comprehension

The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to extract meaning.

critical elements in comprehension of text
Critical Elements in Comprehension of Text
  • The National Reading Panel report (2000) identifies the following elements as essential in Comprehension instruction:

Multiple opposed

to a single strategy

Teaching students

to become strategic takes time.

Active involvement of students

Teaching rather than mentioning or assessing

Seven categories of strategies provide evidence of efficacy.

research on reading comprehension tells us that
Research on Reading Comprehension tells us that...

Readers who comprehend well are also good decoders.

Implications: Teach decoding and word recognition strategies.

Time spent reading is highly correlated with comprehension.

Implications: Provide for lots of in-class reading, outside of class reading, independent reading. Encourage students to read more, read widely, and help them develop a passion for reading.

Big Ideas in Beginning Reading, Univ. of Oregon http://reading.uoregon.edu/comp/comp_why.php

factors that impact reading comprehension
Factors that Impact Reading Comprehension

Reader Based Factors

  • Phonemic awareness
  • Alphabetic understanding
  • Fluency with the code
  • Vocabulary knowledge
  • Prior knowledge
  • Engagement and interest
  • Text Based Factors
  • Narrative vs. expository
  • Genre considerations
  • Quality of text
  • Density and difficulty of concepts

Big Ideas in Beginning Reading, Univ. of Oregon http://reading.uoregon.edu/comp/comp_why.php

causes of reading comprehension failure
Causes of Reading Comprehension Failure
  • Inadequate instruction
  • Insufficient exposure and practice
  • Deficient word recognition skills
  • Significant language deficiencies
  • Inadequate comprehension monitoring and self-evaluation
  • Unfamiliarity with text features and task demands
  • Inadequate reading experiences
using curriculum maps1
Using Curriculum Maps
  • Review the curriculum map for your grade to answer the following questions:
    • What are the high priority skills for the next 3 months? ______________________________
    • What other skills may be necessary to teach before the high priority skills? ______________

_______________________________________

    • What skills do you predict to be difficult for some children? _________________________
summary of critical comprehension skills
Summary of Critical Comprehension Skills

Students should be able to:

  • Identify and answer questions about character, setting, story events, theme, and plot
  • Re-tell a story or the main idea of the passage
  • Identify supporting details of a passage
  • Make evaluative judgments about a reading
  • Make inferences about readings
we can support students reading comprehension by
We can support students’ reading comprehension by :
  • Preparing students for reading
    • Priming background knowledge
    • Setting a purpose for reading
    • Making predictions
  • Explaining the comprehension skill or strategy
  • Modeling how to use the comprehension skill or strategy
  • Providing guided practice for students in using the skill or strategy
  • Providing feedback to students on their use of the skill or strategy
  • Providing opportunities for application of the skill or strategy
steps in explicit strategy skill instruction
Steps in Explicit Strategy & Skill Instruction
  • Direct explanation
  • Modeling
  • Guided practice
  • Feedback
  • Application

Dickson, Collins, Simmons, and Kame’enui, 1998

kindergarten example strategy focus summarize
Kindergarten ExampleStrategy Focus: Summarize

Kindergarten Theme 6, Pages T62, T83

Teacher-Student Modeling Remind children that to retell a story, good readers think about the characters and what they do.

  • Who are the characters in the story?
  • What happened in the story so far?
kinder ejemplo estrateg ia predecir inferir
Kinder EjemploEstrategia: Predecir/Inferir

Kinder Tema 4, página T72, T83

Demostración: Maestro/estudiante Recuérdeles a los niños que las predicciones pueden ser acertadas o equivocadas.

  • Antes de leer, predije que el niño y su papá tal vez fueran al cine, pero no ocurrió. Tal vez la próxima vez, mis ideas sean como las del autor.
  • ¿Que nos dicen el título y las ilustraciones?
grade 1 example strategy focus question
Grade 1 Example-Strategy Focus: Question

Grade 1, Theme 6, page T109-T110

  • Have children turn to Anthology page 164. Together, read the selection title, the name of the author/illustrator, and Strategy focus.
  • As you read the story, ask yourself about each animal and what it does.

Teacher Modeling Model how to ask questions about the story.

Think aloud I see from the picture on page 155 that the girl sees a mouse. I also see a picture of a cat on the wall. I ask myself, is that the girl’s cat. Will the girls call her cat to catch the mouse?

Quick Write You may want children to record their questions by writing in their journals

PurposeSetting Have children preview pages 166-167 and ask their own questions about the animals. Tell children to also use their other reading strategies as they read.

grado 1 ejemplo estrategia clave preguntar
Grado 1 Ejemplo Estrategia clave: Preguntar

Grado 1, Tema 6, página T109-T110

  • Pida a los niños que miren la página 164 de la Antología. Lean juntos el título de la selección, el nobre del autor/ilustrador, y la Estrategia clave. Mientras lee, pregúntense qué hacen estos animales.

Demostración de la maestraDemuestre cómo hacer preguntas acerca del cuento.

Pensar en voz alta…Veo en la ilustración de la página 165 que la niña ve un ratón. Veo también el cuadro de un gato en la pared. Me pregunto, ¿será el gato de la niña? ¿Llamará la niña al gato para que atrape al ratón?

grado 1 ejemplo estrategia clave preguntar cont
Grado 1 Ejemplo Estrategia clave: Preguntar (cont.)

Grado 1, Tema 6, página T109-T110

Escrtitura rápidaPuede pedir a los niños que escriban sus preguntas en su diario.

Establecer un propósitoPida a los níños que anticipen lo que sucederá en las páginas 166 y 167. Pídales que hagan preguntas acerca de los animales. Invite a los niños a buscar respuestas a sus preguntas mientras leen. Recuérdeles que utilicen sus otras estrategias de lectura mientras leen.

grade 2 example strategy focus monitor clarify
Grade 2 ExampleStrategy Focus: Monitor/Clarify
  • Grade 2 Theme 1, Page 50
  • Teacher-Student Modeling: Ask children how they can make sure they understand what they are reading. Explain that they can stop and ask themselves questions, or monitor what they are reading. Ask children what they could do if they didn’t understand what was happening on page 51.
grado 2 ejemplo estrategia clave revisar aclarar
Grado 2 EjemploEstrategia clave: Revisar/Aclarar

Grado 2 Tema 1, página 50

  • Demostración: Maestro/Estudiante:Pregunteles a los niños cómo pueden asegurarse de que comprenden lo que están leyendo. Explíqueles que pueden detenerse y hacerse preguntas o revisar lo que están leyendo. Pregunteles a los niños qué podrían hacer si no comprendieran lo que ocurre en la página 51. (Ellos podrían volver a leer, mirar las ilustraciones para buscar pistas o seguir leyendo para ver si pueden comprender el suceso.)
grade 3 example strategy focus predict infer
Grade 3 ExampleStrategy Focus: Predict/Infer
  • Grade 3 Theme 1, Page 98
  • Teacher-Student Modeling: Discuss clues on page 99 that can help students predict what lies ahead on the hike.
  • Have someone read aloud the final sentence on page 99, and ask what predictions students can make. Point out that bears roar too. Ask students to explain why that prediction is unlikely.
grado 3 ejemplo estrategia clave predecir inferir
Grado 3 Ejemplo Estrategia clave: Predecir/Inferir

Grado 3 Tema 1, página 98

  • Demostración: Maestro/Estudiante:Comente las pistas de la página 99 que puden ayudar a los estudiantes a predecir qué vienen más adelnate en la caminata.
    • La familia camina contra la corriente de los rápidos; esuchan un rugido.
  • Pida a alguien que lea en voz alta la última oración de la página 99 y pregunte a los estudiantes qué predicciones pueden hacer.
    • La familia hallará una cascada.
  • Señale que los osos también rugen. Pídales que expliquen por qué esa predicción es poco probable.
    • Si fuera el sonido de un animal, se asustarían y retrocederían.
activity3
Activity
  • Work with a group of three to practice just the Comprehension portions of your Houghton-Mifflin Reading/Lectura instruction. One person in your group should act as the teacher, one as a student, and one as a coach, providing feedback on the lesson. Take turns performing each role.
objectives7
To define comprehension instruction and relevant skills

Research behind comprehension instruction

High priority skills of comprehension

To identify and implement comprehension components within daily Houghton-Mifflin Reading & Lectura lessons

Objectives
objectives8
Objectives
  • You will learn:
  • To define fluency instruction and relevant skills
  • Research behind fluency instruction
  • To identify high priority skills of fluency
  • To identify and implement fluency components within daily Houghton-Mifflin & Lectura lessons
  • Other fluency building activities
automaticity and fluency with the code
Automaticity and Fluency with the Code
  • The effortless, automatic ability to read words in connected text.
  • A fluent reader’s focus is on understanding the passage by reading each word accurately and with speed to enable comprehension.
  • The term fluency incorporates two things:
      • Accuracy and Pace

Adapted from Harn (2005)

critical elements in automaticity fluency with the code
Critical Elements in Automaticity & Fluency with the Code
  • The National Reading Panel report (2000) identifies the following elements as essential in Automaticity and Fluency instruction:

Repeated

Readings

Corrective

Feedback

Not all children need all... differentiate!

Keep the

end in mind..

Fluency is only part of the picture!

Relatively brief

sessions (15-30 minutes)

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Fluency provides a bridge between

word recognition and comprehension

(National Institute for Literacy (2001)

  • Fluency “may be almost a necessary condition for good comprehension and enjoyable reading experiences” (Nathan & Stanovich, 1991, pg. 176).
  • If a reader has to spend too much time and energy figuring out what the words are, she will be unable to concentrate on what the words mean(Coyne, Kame’enui, & Simmons, 2001).
teaching reading is urgent
Teaching Reading is Urgent

88% of students who met the end of first grade ORF goal met or exceeded Oregon’s State Benchmark Test. Similar correlations have been found for CO, IA, FL, and PA.

Performance at the end of first grade strongly predicts performance on third grade high stakes test.

Torgeson, 2005

fluency example grade 2 theme 1 page 67 grado 2 tema 1 p gina 67
Fluency Example Grade 2 Theme 1, page 67 &Grado 2, Tema 1 página 67
  • Rereading for Fluency
  • Have children choose part of the story to reread orally in small groups, or suggest that they read page 66 through the last complete paragraph. Model fluent reading and coach children to read with feeling and expression.
  • For additional fluency practice with easier text, work with small groups to reread the Reader’s Library selection “Big Hog’s House Hunt.” Model and coach as needed
fluency example grade 2 theme 1 page 41j
Fluency ExampleGrade 2, Theme 1, page 41J

High frequency Words

Daily Cumulative Review

  • Provide children with daily opportunities to review these important high-frequency words. Display them on the Word Pattern Board, and have children practice recognizing, chanting, spelling, and writing the words. Also, display and review other high-frequency words yet to be mastered.
  • began*, their*, begin*, there*, goes*, thought*, gone*, very*

*Previously taught in grade 1

fluency example grado 2 tema 1 p gina 41j
Fluency ExampleGrado 2, Tema 1, página 41J

Palabras de uso frecuente

Repaso diario acumulativo

  • Dé diariamente a los niños oportunidades para repasar estas importantes palabras de uso frecuente. Muéstrelas en el tablero de palabras y pida a los niños que practiquen el reconocer, recitar, deletrear, y escribir las palabras. También, muestre y repase otras palabras de us frecuente que todavía no dominen.
  • sí*, amigo*, día*, bien*, gusta*, debajo*, cuatro*, está*

*Enseñada en grado 1

additional fluency building activities
Additional Fluency Building Activities

Fluency building should be short-term practice scheduled frequently within and across days to build skill to a level of automaticity.

letter sound word automaticity example the 1 minute dash
Letter-Sound/Word AutomaticityExample: The 1 Minute Dash

Preparation:

  • Identify a set of letter-sounds/words students can correctly identify.
  • Create/use multiple cards of each letter-sound/word in the set.

Activity:

  • Set a goal (i.e., 30 letter sounds correct).
  • Do a 1-minute small-group practice. Position cards so all can see.
  • Start the stop watch.
  • Present the first letter sound/word card so all students answer.
  • Provide quick corrective feedback on errors.
  • Continue presenting letters/words adjusting the pace of presentation systematically.
  • Letter-sounds/words correctly identified go in one pile. Place errors in a second pile.
  • At the end of 1 minute, tally the number of letter sounds/words correct.
  • Review errors and repeat activity for 1 more minute.
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Word Reading Automaticity Examples

1. Paired peer practice. Pair a higher performer with a child who needs fluency practice. Use similar procedures as in 1-Minute Dash. Each child may use his/her set of known but not fluent words.

2. Word recognition grid. Prepare a 5x5 grid of 5 words. One word per row randomly ordered. Include a short review of words. Then, do a timed recall of the words.

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Word Reading Example: 5 x 5 Grid

(Modification of Region XIII Texas Educational Service Center)

connected text fluency instructional strategy individual strategy repeated reading
Connected Text Fluency Instructional StrategyIndividual Strategy: Repeated Reading

For individual students needing to increase reading fluency use the following steps:

  • Identify short reading passages (approx. 150 words) students can read with >95% accuracy
  • Have student read for 1-minute as quickly and accurately as possible and determine words correct per minute (cold reading)
  • Identify and mark a target rate approximately 30% faster than cold reading
  • Have student independently reread passage with

timer until they obtain target rate

  • Teacher repeats step 2 to determine if goal was determined
  • Graph progress

(Adapted from Howell & Nolet, 2001)

slide192

Identify passages student can read with high accuracy (>95%)

Collect cold reading cwpm

Determine 30% increase wpm and mark

Student practices reading out loud with timer to reach goal

Teacher does hot timing again

Monitor and graph progress

Example of Repeated Reading Steps

objectives9
Objectives
  • You will learn:
  • To define fluency instruction and relevant skills
  • Research behind fluency instruction
  • To identify high priority skills of fluency
  • To identify and implement fluency components within daily Houghton-Mifflin Reading & Lectura lessons
  • Other fluency building activities