Mathematics, astronomy, and medicine were three of the earliest sciences. The Greeks developed theories, or explanations, to understand nature. Aristotle observed nature and classified information about animals and plants. Ancient Greece and Rome page 545
Ptolemy believed the Earth was the center of the universe. Geocentric Theory page 545
Astronomical Timeline 1500 A.D. Copernicus Creates Heliocentric Theory 90 A.D. Ptolemy Creates Geocentric Theory Year 0 For almost 1,500 years Ptolemy was was how the world understood the universe.
Renaissance (Pages 416-421) Exploration (463-468) Printing Press (414, 426) Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Galileo Causes: of Science Revolution
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) was a Polish mathematician who believed the sun was the center of the universe (Heliocentric Theory.) A Revolution in Astronomy • The first science to be affected by the Scientific Revolution was astronomy. pages 517–519
Tycho Brahe (1546–1601) was a Danish astronomer whose highly accurate observations were used by the German astronomer Johannes Kepler in formulating his three famous laws of planetary motion. Tycho combined Copernican Theory with Ptolemaic Theory. He believed the Earth was stationary and the other planets orbited the Sun.
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) believed in Copernicus’s idea, but he also believed that the planets move in ellipses, or oval paths. Page 518
Galileo was an Italian scientist who determined that objects of different weights fall at the same speed. He improved scientific instruments, such as the telescope, and was important in the development of new instruments. The Roman Catholic Church condemned Galileo’s ideas and tried him for heresy. Galileo's telescope Page 519
Isaac Newton developed the Universal Law of Gravitation. Motion and Forces Page 519 - 521
In the 1500s, Andreas Vasalius dissected human bodies. He published On the Structure of the Human Body in 1543. Medicine and Chemistry Page 520
Important advances were made in chemistry. Robert Boyle discovered that all substances were made up of basic elements, and Antoine Lavoisier determined that oxygen is required for objects to burn. The Phlogiston Theory, in chemistry, was an early explanation concerning combustion c.1700. material such as coal or wood was rich in a material substance he called phlogiston, from a Greek word meaning "to set on fire." The actual process of combustion involved a loss of phlogiston to the air. What remained after combustion was without phlogiston and could no longer burn. Thus wood possessed phlogiston but ash did not.
Rene Descartes is the founder of modern rationalism. This is the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge. To Descartes, one fact seemed to be beyond doubt—his own existence. Descartes clarified this idea by the phrase, “I think, therefore I am” or “Cogito ergo sum.” The Triumph of Reason
Francis Bacon developed the modern scientific method, an orderly way of collecting and analyzing evidence. The Scientific Method