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Unguere : To Smear with Oil . Lori Kissell FLAVA October 04, 2013. Origin. Gift of Athena Symbol of Attica/Athens Never most important Attic crop and likely not primary export. Production and Uses. Production – growing -crushing -pressing -transporting Uses - -light -cooking

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unguere to smear with oil

Unguere: To Smear with Oil

Lori Kissell

FLAVA

October 04, 2013

origin
Origin
  • Gift of Athena
  • Symbol of Attica/Athens
  • Never most important Attic crop and likely not primary export
production and uses
Production and Uses

Production – growing

-crushing

-pressing

-transporting

Uses - -light

-cooking

-bodies

-ritual

production
Production
  • Growing:
    • Lower slopes of Apennines
    • Spain
    • Southern Gaul
    • Greece
    • Asiatic provinces
    • coastal Tripolitania and Cyrenaica
    • African provinces
production1
Production
  • Growing
    • Highly drought-resistant
    • Sensitive to frost
    • Usually crop every other year
    • Cuttings, ovules and grafts
    • Olives do not grow true to type from seeds
    • Table/oil varieties
    • Rarely mono-cultured
production2
Production
  • Growing
    • Combined with pastoralism
    • Harvested in autumn/winter
    • Greeks and Romans liked “white” olives for oil
production3
Production
  • Crushing
    • Packed in salt/saltwater first
    • Not edible raw
    • Crush first
    • Many devices known
    • Simplest – flat bed and stone roller, pestle, wooden sandals
    • Best is Roman trapetum
production4
Production
  • Crushing
    • Don’t crush stones – add bitter taste
    • Luxury/quality oil removed stones first or minimal crushing of stones
    • Machines existed for stone removal, questionable effectiveness
    • Crushed olives moved to frails, then to presses
production5
Production
  • Pressing
    • Simplest and most common press = beam
    • Weighted with rocks, human pulling
    • End fixed in wall as fulcrum
    • Weight pulled onto crushed olives in frails, pressing oil out
production6
Production
  • Pressing

-Improvements to beam press incl. winch, lever and drum, better anchoring

-Screw 1st assisted, then replaced beam

-Direct screw press replaced beam 1st C. CE

-Possible because of screw, screw nut 3rd C BCE

--Pliny, screw extracts more, risks bitterness

production7
Production
  • Pressing
    • Separate oil and water
    • Romans ladle from top per Cato (Agr. 66) and Columella (Rust. 12.52-8-12)
    • Greeks more commonly use bottom spout method
    • Presscake remains, used for pig food and fertilizer
production8
Production
  • Transporting
    • Most olives raised and consumed locally
    • Oil keeps better, and is traded
    • Luxury oils for quality, taste, added flavorings traded like vintage wine
production9
Production
  • Transporting
    • Attica, Samos, Venafrum, Baetica, Cyrenaica all famous for oil
    • Stored and transported in large jars (dolia/pithoi)
    • Sold in amphorae
    • 2/3 sherds in Mt. Testaccio are olive oil amphorae
    • Peak in trade 140-165 CE
slide24
Uses
  • Light
    • Lamps were pottery, bronze, gold, silver, iron, lead, ceramic
    • Single or multiple nozzle styles
    • Freestanding or suspended
    • Smokeless or minimal smoke
slide26
Uses
  • Cooking
    • Roman recipes abound with olive oil
    • Dunk (morning) bread
    • Infuse with flavors – herbs? decadent?
slide27
Uses
  • Bodies
    • Baths and strigils
    • Skin oils
slide28
Uses

Bodies

  • Perfumes
slide29
Uses
  • Bodies
    • Medicaments
slide30
Uses

Ritual

-Oil from sacred trees (moriai) given as prizes in Panathenaic Games

slide31
Uses

Ritual

-Libations

slide32
Uses
  • Roman wedding
    • Anoint couple’s new door with oil-soaked wool
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