Lord of the Flies Research Unit
You are going to write a researched literary analysis using two types of sources: • Primary source: The book itself (Lord of the Flies) • Secondary source: Articles other people have written about the book
This will begin as a four paragraph essay containing… • An introduction • 2 body paragraphs • A conclusion
10 steps in the essay process: • Select a topic • Fill out brainstorm sheet • Complete formal outline & thesis statement • Record support from primary source • Read secondary source essays and take notes • Incorporate notes into outline & organize notes • Create bibliography cards • Write the rough draft • Peer edit & revise • Write the final Draft
Step 1: Select a topic Here are some suggestions • the conflict of good and evil in humanity • the presence of evil in humanity • the loss of innocence • the initiation of the innocent to a cruel reality • man’s inhumanity to man • isolation or mistreatment of the individual • man’s animal nature • the transformation from boy to savage • use of symbolism in the novel • contrast democracy and dictatorship in the novel • other?? (get approved by Milli)
Step 2: Brainstorm • In the rectangle at the top of the page, jot down your topic (this doesn’t need to be in sentence form) • Divide your topic into two examples/characters and list each in the two parallelograms below the top rectangle • Include two examples, in your own words, for each topic
Step 3: Formal Outline Create a title for your essay Include the author’s name or book title & the main idea Be specific: We should know that you are writing about Lord of the Flies! Good title: A Broken Shell and Shattered Innocence: Lost Youth in Lord of the Flies Bad title: A Broken Shell and Shattered Innocence
Step 3: Formal Outline • Include “Introduction” and “Conclusion” in spaces I and IV on your outline • In spaces II and III, transfer/record the information from the reverse side of the form (from your brainstorm sheet)
Step 4: Take Primary Source Notes In your essay, you will include quotations from your primary source to support your analysis of the text. These quotes should directly support each of the points on your formal outline (A, B) Begin the note-taking process by locating each example in the text (for instance, if I am saying that an example of Piggy’s mistreatment is when Jack beats him up for no good reason, then I need to locate that example in my book) Once you have located the passage that supports your argument, use the appropriate note-taking format to record the example
Step 5: Secondary Source Notes In your essay, you will also include quotations from at least two secondary sources to support your analysis of the text. These quotes are the author’s ideas that may directly support one of the points on your formal outline (A, B), or he/she may suggest new ideas that go along with your analysis
Step 5: Secondary Source Notes • Do not record primary source quotations from the secondary source articles; remember to record the author’s thoughts • Once you have located relevant information, use the appropriate note-taking format to record the example • Note-taking requirement: 4 secondary source quotations from at least two different articles
Step 6: Revise the Formal Outline & Organize Your Notes • Once you have finished taking notes from your secondary sources, you will need to go back to your formal outline and revise what’s there • Add a “C” and “D” if necessary to include the secondary source information you found • Once you have finished revising your formal outline, look it over while at the same time reading over your note cards one more time
Step 6: Revise the Formal Outline & Organize Your Notes • Place your note cards in order of how you think the examples need to appear in your essay; follow these steps: • Separate cards by topic (for example, place all cards about Piggy in one stack and all cards about Simon in another stack) • Organize each stack by placing them in logical sequence (in what order do you want the examples/quotes to appear in your body paragraphs?) • Number your note cards (1-8)
Step 7: Create Bibliography Cards • You will need to create a bibliography card for each source quoted in your essay • First, make a list of sources used (including Golding) • Next, determine which type of source each book/article is • Golding and Olsen=book with one author • Readings On and Modern Critical Interpretations articles=essay in collection • Discovering Collection=Internet database
Step 7: Create Bibliography Cards • Use the guidelines below to format each bibliography card (be sure to include one entry per card) • Remember to double space entries and to use hanging indentation
Secondary Source Citations Article Author. “Article.” Book Title. Editor. City: Publisher, Year. Pages. Macon, Sonya. “Why Honors Brit Lit is the Bomb-diggity.” Discovering High School English Classes: A Collection of Essays. Ed. Phillip Page. Acworth: Warrior Press, 2009. 20-25.
Step 8: Compose Your Rough Draft • On the rough draft form, record your title and your thesis statement (you will go back later and write your introduction) • Begin your first body paragraph with a topic sentence that restates your thesis (for example, The first character who must endure a life of mistreatment and isolation is Piggy.)
Step 8: Compose Your Rough Draft • Following the points on your outline, discuss your supporting details. Remember to do the following (in this order): • State the idea • Support the idea with a lead-in, quotation & citation • Explain the significance of the quote (in your own words, analyze the quote, explaining how it ties in to your main idea or thesis statement) • Transition to your next idea • When you are finished writing your body paragraphs, go write your intro and conclusion paragraphs
Revisions • Identify your thesis. • Is it a clearly worded answer to a question and/or a clearly worded declaration of your views/ideas? • Is it a sentence with a subject and an opinion? • Is it NOT a restatement of an idea that is already generally accepted as true?
The conflict between the logging interests of the Pacific Northwest and the protection of the spotted owl is one example of the conflict between economic development and environmental preservation. • The preservation of the spotted owl pits environmentalists against loggers, serving as a microcosm of the ongoing conflict between individuals rightly committed to preserving the existence of the species that balance the ecosystem and individuals interested only in the economic and employment development of a small region of the country.
Introduction: Ways to Open Your Essay • Anecdote – relevant, short story • Dialogue or Quotation • Startling Information • Opinion • Controversial or Provocative Question • Definition • Supply Statistics • Tell a joke • Allude to history or literature • Present a hypothetical situation
Purpose of Introduction • (HOOK)Capture the reader’s attention • Set a tone and communicate information • Provide general background information that reader will need to understand thesis • (THESIS) Assert a thesis which provides focus and direction for your reader • (FORECAST) Indicate what is to follow
Conclusions – So what? • (SUMMARY) DO NOT simply RESTATE your thesis. • (BROADER BACKGROUND) Relate thesis to broader point with implications for you, the reader, or your world • (INTENSIFIED INSIGHT) Reinforce the significance of your argument; leave your reader thinking about your point, considering some action, or recognizing a “universal truth.”
Ways to Conclude your Essay • With a vivid image • With a quotation • With a Call for Action • Summarize Main Points (Don’t insult your reader’s intelligence) • Raise questions by facts contained in the body • Provide an epitome – an all encompassing illustration
Transitions • Between opening sentences and thesis: • This (situation, story case) illustrates the point that . . . Is an example of today’s problem of . . . • In a similar way . . . • Between body paragraphs: • One of the most important reasons why/examples of . . . Is . . . • Another point is . . . • Similarly . . . • Between body paragraphs and conclusion: • In conclusion . . . • Finally . . . • All things considered . . .
Transitions to show . . . • Support • As an example, further, similarly, for instance • Main Points • Most important, a major development, there are 3 main reasons why . . . , • Contrast • On the other hand, however, yet, • Addition • Comparison • Conclusion • Explanation • Concession • Time • Summation, Repetition, Intensification
Integrating Quotations • Lead-in • Quote • Lead-out (explanation, analysis) • Alternatives to “says” • Argues, asserts, concludes, contends, discusses, emphasizes, examines, explores, focuses on, has determined that, highlights the fact that, maintains, mentions, notes, points out that, reports, states, suggests
How to Integrate Quotations • Using a Direct Quotation • Imani Davis contends, “Studies on pigs’ social behavior funded by Purdue University, for example, have found that they crave affection and are easily depressed if isolated or denied playtime with each other” (Golding 15). • Paraphrasing a Quotation • In title of article, Imani contends that pigs need affection and playtime (Golding 15). • Summarizing a Quotation • SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY (Golding 15).