Texttypes • Knowledge of writtentextgreatlydepends on computerisedcorpora of writtenmaterials. • Daily life texts (notes, telexes, notices, memos, letters,etc.) aremostlyinaccesible. • Therefore, languageteachersusemainstreamtexts as teachingmaterials. • Thechallenge is todeviseinterestingandauthenticactivities.
Speech andwriting • Bothspokenandwrittendiscoursesdepend on theircontextstosomedegree. • Writtendiscourses can be as contextdependent as speech. • NO BICYCLES • It is forbiddentoride here. • It ıs forbiddento park here. • Allbicyclesalreadyhired/sold. • Writing is not fundamentallydifferentfromspeech.
Units in writtendiscourse • Theinternalconstruction of a sentence is a subject of grammar. • Howeversomegrammaticalfeatures (wordorder, cohesion, and tense sequences) in a sentencehavesomeimplicationsfordiscourse as a whole, here ‘sentence’ has nospecialvalue.
An interestingactivitytoinvolvedecisions on wordorder, cohesion, andsequence of tensesin discourse: JIGSAW • A group of studentsgiven a jigsawtextproducedinterestingresults • Theactivityledstudentstodiscusssomepoints in thejigsaw. • Theycreatedtheirownsentences. • They had a decision-makingprocess. • Theydefendedtheirdecisions.
Clauserelations • Theunits of writtendiscourse , ratherthanalwaysbeing a sentence, arebestseen as functionalsegmentsmadeupwithanythingfrom a praselto a wholeparagragh. • Theseunits can be relatedtooneanotherbylimitedcognitiverelationssuch as cause-consquence, instrument-achievement, matchingrelations,… • Theserelations can be done byconjunctingthesegments. Thiscreates a cohesion. • However, overuse of conjunctionsmaycreatedifficultiesforreaderstorelatethesegments. • Also, conjunctionshavetheirlexicalequilavents in nouns, verbs, andadjectives. (addition, cause, consequence, reason, etc)
Gettinggripswithlargerpatterns • A discoursemay be organised in a patternsuch as • Problem- solution (chapter 1-3) • Claim-counterclaim (chapter 3) • Narrativepatterns (chapter 2) • Howevertherearemorepatterns • Problem-answer (similarto problem-solution) • General specificpatterns
Problem-answer • Similarto problem-solution, but focuses on a particularquestionposed at thebeginning of thetext. • General-specificpattern • Starts with a general statementandthengoesintodetail. • General statement • Specificstatement 1 • Specificstatement 2 • Specificstatement 3 • etc…. • General statement
Anytextmaycontainmorethanonepattern. Patternsmayfolloweachother in thetextor be embeddedwithinoneanother. • Findingpatterns in a textdepends on theinterpretation of thereaderfollowingthesignalsandclues of thewriter. • Howeversomepatternstendtooccur in particularsettings: • Problem solution: advertisingtexts, textabouttechnologicaladvances • Claim-counterclaim: politicaljournalism, letters-to-theeditorpages • General-specific: encyclopedias, referencetexts
Cultureandrhetoric • Europeanlearners of English in general haveshowntheabilityto transfer discoursepatternsfromtheir L1 to L2. • Whataboutthelearnersfromothercultures? Arethereanyinterference? • Therearecontraversiesaboutotherlanguages. Forexample:
Therearesomediscoursefeatureslendingthemselvestodirectintervention.Therearesomediscoursefeatureslendingthemselvestodirectintervention. • Discourse-signallingvocabulary • Appropriateuse of conjuntionsandotherlinkingwords • Anaphoricreference Somelanguagesallowmorerepetition of thenounheadratherthanpronominalisation. • British boysspendmost time forfootballbecause, in thiscountry, football is themostpopular sportsthat’swhytheyspentmost time forfootball. In Japan, baseball is themost popular sportssoJapaneseboys (teenagers) spentmost time forbaseball. • (fromtheJapaneselearner’stext, unnaturalamount of noun-headrepetition.
Discourseandthereader • Thedebateabout top-downandbottom-upstrategies is settled as: • Efficientreadersusethembothsimultaneously. • Goodlisteners/readers • Areconstantlyattendingtothesegmentation of thediscourse • Byintonationalfeaturesinspeech • Byorthographicalfeatures in writing • Bylexico-grammaticalsignals in both. • Arealwayspredictingwhat is tocome • Bythenextfewwords • Bythelargerpatterns (e.g. problem-solution)