Discourse aspects of interlanguage Acquiring discourse rules Interactionist Theories Foreigner talk Types of modification of baseline talk The role of output in L2 acquisition Ways in which learners can learn from their own output
Do social factors have direct or indirect impact on what goes on inside the learners “black box” *?
The American English compliment responses are quite elaborate in which the speaker attempts to play down the compliment by making unfavorable compliment • E.g. A: I like your sweater. B: It’s so old. My sister bought it for me in Italy some time a go.
Acquiring discourse rules • There are rules in the ways in which native speakers hold conversations. • E.g. in the United States, a compliment calls for a response. If the person fails to provide one response, this is considered as a sociolinguistic error
A Question for you ! What about learners? How do you think they respond in a conversation includes compliment?
L2 learners behave in a different way. Sometimes they fail to respond to the compliment, and other time they produce bare responses like saying “Thank you” :)
Interactionist Theories Interactionist theories of L2 acquisition acknowledge the importance of both input and internal language processing. Learning takes place as a result of a complex interaction between the linguistic environment and the learner’s internal mechanism
Question to think about ! Do you think native speakers modify their speech when communicating with learners?
Foreigner talk? Foreigner talk is the language that native speakers use when addressing non-native speakers. There are two types of foreigner talk, these are (ungrammatical and grammatical)
In ungrammatical foreigner talk, native speakers delete certain grammatical features, GIVE EXAMPLES
There are various types of modification of baseline talk (Grammatical Foreigner Talk) • Grammatical foreigner talk is delivered at a slower pace • The input is simplified like using shorter sentences
3. Grammatical foreigner talk is sometimes regularized. (i.e. using basic forms of some structure = “will not forget” instead of “won’t forget”) 4. Grammatical foreigner talk sometimes consists of elaborated language use to make the meaning clear
The role of output in L2 acquisition Merrill Swain has argued that comprehensible output plays a part in L2 acquisition, in contrast to what Krashen argues as he claims that the only way learners can learn from their output is by treating it as auto-input.
Ways in which learners can learn from their own output (According to Merrill suggestion) • Output can serve a consciousness-raising function by helping learners to notice gaps in their interlanguage . This is by trying to speak or write in the L2, and then they realize the lack of grammatical knowledge of some important features
2. Output helps learners to test hypothesis. This can help learners when they try out a rule and see whether it leads to successful communication or whether it elicits negative feedback
3. Learners sometimes talk about their own output, identifying problems with it and discussing ways in which they can be put right