Dates: Friday, 3/21 Outcome: Students will describe methods and equipment used to explore the solar system (focus on moon.) Question: Why do objects such as satellites and moons stay in orbit? Activities: View Apollo 13 Apollo 13 Movie Study Guide questions assigned and covered in TCAP classrooms. Hand in Study Guide to TCAP teacher!
What U.S . President issued the challenge to NASA to put a man on the moon by the end of the decade (1960 – 1969)? John F. Kennedy • The tragic fire during the routine training sequence of Apollo 1 killed what 2 astronauts? Gus Grissom, Ed White, Rob Chaffee • What went wrong that lead to the deaths of the Apollo 1 crew? Electrical fire during pre-launch test and the door (hatch) wouldn’t open • On what date in history did the first man walk on the moon? July 20, 1969 • What Apollo space flight was that? 11 • Who were the 3 astronauts on Apollo 11? Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, Michael Collins • What is the famous first sentences spoken by the first man on the moon? “One small step for man. One giant leap for mankind.” • Apollo 13 consisted of two spacecraft able to separate. What was the name of the Command Module and what was its function? Odyssey – orbit moon and renter earth’s atmosphere • What was the name of the LEM and does LEM stand for? Aquarius – Lunar Excursion Module • In what two U.S. states are the main NASA facilities located? Texas and Florida • In the sixties and seventies Cape Canaveral was known by another name. What was it? Cape Kennedy • What was the type of rocket that was used to boost the spacecraft into orbit? Saturn V • Why was Jim Lovell’s Apollo 14 crew moved up to fly the Apollo 13 mission? Alan Shephard had an ear infection • After liftoff, how long will it take for the astronauts to reach the moon? 4 days • Two days before the launch astronaut Ken Mattingly, who was to fly the Command Module, was scratched from the flight. Why? He was exposed to the measles. • Name the 3 astronauts who flew the Apollo 13 mission. Jim Lovell, Fred Haise, Jack Swigert • The famous count down goes as follows: “3-2-1 ignition. We have lift off. Houston, you have cleared the tower.
What is the “little jolt” Lovell tells his crew to expect caused by? Booster rockets disengage • Why is there weightlessness in space? a state in which an object has no actual weight (because it is in space and unaffected by gravitational attraction) or no apparent weight (because the gravitational attraction equals the centripetal force and the object is in free fall) • How do you go to the bathroom in space? Suction tubes • What famous rock group announced their split up during Apollo 13 mission? Beatles • What are the famous words Jim Lovell says that changes the nature of the mission? Houston, we have a problem. • After the explosion, Jim Lovell knows they weren’t hit by a meteor. How doe he know that and why? They aren’t dead. A meteor didn’t punch a hole in the ship. • Looking out the window Lovell sees the spacecraft ”venting” something. What is it? Gas (oxygen) • Mission Control in Houston tells the crew to close the react valves in cells 1 and 3. What will this hope to accomplish? Save the oxygen How has the mission objective changed now? Can’t restart them to land on the moon • The crew moves over to the ______________, using it as a life boat of sorts. The scientists at NASA at Mission Control in Houston must recalculate important factors using what mathematical devices? (hint: before calculators were invented.) slide rulers • Explain the following factors in terms of survival: Loss of oxygen in cell 1 and 3 – not enough oxygen to continue Loss of electrical power – can’t use computer or navigational tools Too much roll in the orbiting spacecraft – could tumble off into space • Without enough engine power to get the spacecraft home, scientists will use what gravity to help sling the ship into the correct path? The moon’s gravitational pull
Who is the president at the time of Apollo 13? Richard Nixon • Why is there a loss of signal for a period of time between Apollo 13 and Mission Control? It goes behind the moon. • Why must the crew of Apollo 13 reduce their electrical usage to 12 amps? Not enough power to last until splash down • What does the simulator that Ken Mattingly uses do? Train astronauts, simulates the Command Module • What is dangerous about carbon dioxide levels rising if the crew still has enough oxygen to use? It is toxic and impairs brain function before death. • What do NASA engineers do to solve the problem? Connect the Command Module to LEM filter • About this time, what natural hazard was developing in the South Pacific? Typhoon • Jim Lovell’s mother, Blanche, in the nursing home utters a famous line. “If they could get a washing machine to fly, my Jimmy could land it.” • Fred Haise, one of the astronauts gets sick during the mission. Give a description of 2 of his symptoms. Fever 104 degrees, sweats, kidney pain • The mission control doctor describes what the astronauts do as “a medical mutiny.” What did they do? Disengage their bio med sensors • Apollo 13 was supposed to bring home 200 pounds of what material, the absence of which makes them too light for reentry? Moon rocks • The Apollo 13 astronauts had to aim at a fixed point in space to realign their spacecraft for the proper angle for reentry into what? Earth’s atmosphere • What did they use for a reference since their computers were out? The Earth’s image in a window • How were the amps restored to a useable level in the Command Module? Hooked up battery from LEM (ran it backwards)
What does “to jettison the LEM” mean? Push it off • Explain how the following would affect the Apollo 13 reentry and splashdown. ~ too shallow at reentry = skip off of Earth’s atmosphere into space ~ cracked heat shield = Command Module (Odyssey) will burn up ~ typhoon = rough seas at recovery ~ no parachutes = come down at 300 mph, instead of 20 mph • Which of the astronauts later was elected to Congress from Colorado but died of cancer before he took office? Jack Swigert (statue of him at Denver International Airport on Concourse B) • What defect was the explosion on board Apollo 13 finally traced to and when was it made? Damaged coil sparked when turned on to stir oxygen tanks, years before crew was even selected • What astronaut, who didn’t fly in Apollo 13 but played an important role in the rescue, go on to fly the Apollo 16 mission and later the space shuttle? Ken Mattingly Jim Lovell Ken Mattingly Fred Haise Jack Swigert