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  1. Introduction to managing change and innovation 2013Session one: Friday November 8th –Saturday November 9th Murray Saunders

  2. Programme Friday November 8th morning session: 9.00 -12.30 Friday November 8th afternoon session: 13.30 – 17.30 Saturday November 9th morning session: 9.00 -12.30 The sequence: • Context of change: the organisation as a unit of analysis • The culture of an organisation at the heart of change • Knowledge resources, practices as part of culture • How do we acquire a ‘culture’ (informal learning process) • How do we experience a change • How do we analyse a change (leading to the assignment)

  3. Aims: • Have an understanding of the ideas of change and innovation from a social practice perspective • To be able to analyse situations of change with appropriate analytical tools • Have an understanding of different types of change context

  4. A Modern Phenomenon? Nothing endures but change. Heraclitus Greek philosopher (540 BC - 480 BC)

  5. Etzioni’s classic definition of an organisation Bodies, persisting over time, which are specially set up to achieve specific aims

  6. The characteristics of an organisation • Division of labour, of power, and of communication responsibilities, such divisions being deliberately planned to achieve certain goals • The presence of power centres which control the concerted efforts of the organisation and continuously review its performance and re-pattern its structure to increase efficiency • The substitution of personnel by others assigned their tasks and the transference and promotion of individuals

  7. Why do organisations change?

  8. Why do organisations change? To reflect societal needs / aspirations To adapt to external change External regulation Making a difference Management goal Restructuring Efficiency Survival To expand good practice Responding to challenges External influence Attract investment Planning & development To stay ahead of the competition To grow To be more competitive Satisfy demand New people change the organisation to suit themselves Someone at the top says we have to! Because the environment changes To create new opportunities After: Richard Seel

  9. Core conceptual tools in understanding and managing changeWhat is culture? What is change? What is ‘practice’?Introducing a social practice approach

  10. What is change? • To cause to be different • A transformation or transition from one state, condition or phase to another

  11. Change is anything different from current conditions whereas innovation is something entirely new than anyone has seen before.

  12. What is change? • Incrementalism: doing the same only a little better, in other words improvements on existing practice clusters. Improving the quality of teaching materials might be an example. • Innovative incrementalism: addition of innovations to existing practices, for example adding an international dimension to a syllabus where none existed before, or a new teaching practice to a repertoire. • Transformational: radical understanding of enhancement involves a re-think of existing approaches, even fundamental purposes, and completely new practices. Saunders, M (2013) Quality enhancement: an overview of lessons from the Scottish experience in Amaral, A (2013) Recent Trends in Quality Assurance (Palgrave/ MacMillan)

  13. “Change requires a change in culture: culture is at the heart of change”

  14. Key concepts of culture • Designated value • Beliefs • Meanings (semiotics) and knowledge resources • Practices • Communities of practice

  15. Depicting change in an organisation: knowledge, culture and practice Geertz and culture: “The concept of culture I espouse is essentially a semiotic one. Believing, with Max Weber, that man is an animal suspended in webs of significancehe himself has spun, I take cultures to be those webs, and the analysis of it to be therefore not an experimental science in search of law but an interpretative one in search of meaning”.

  16. Depicting change in an organisation: knowledge, culture and practice Geertz and culture: «Le concept de culture, je épouser est essentiellement une sémiotique. Croyant, avec Max Weber, que l'homme est un animal suspendu dans des toiles de signification qu'il lui a filé, je prends des cultures à ces toiles, et l'analyse de celui-ci d'être donc pas une science expérimentale à la recherche de la loi mais une interprétation dans quête de sens ».

  17. Cultures consist of organisational characteristics the knowledge of which act as resources for practices Changing requires changing practices but why is this difficult?

  18. Depicting organisational culture as ‘interactions’ Handy’s organisational cultures: • Role (hierarchic, formal roles) • Achievement (flat, informal tasking, teams, expertise, specific outcomes) • Power (factional, dealing, strategic conduct and liaisons, hierarchic) • Support (flat, participative, humanistic, interactional) Saunders, M. (1995) Researching Professional Learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Vol 11, no 3, pp 231-238

  19. Depicting organisational characteristics as cultural knowledge: the basis of ‘practice’Blackler (1995) Knowledge, Knowledge Work and Organizations: An Overview and Interpretation in Organization Studies November 1995 vol. 16 no. 6 1021-1046 • Embrained knowledge [dependent on conceptual skills and cognitive abilities] • Embodied knowledge [action oriented likely to be only partly explicit, mostly tacit, ‘the way we do things here’] • Encultured knowledge [refers to the process of achieving shared understandings through language, socialisation acculturation, socially constructed and negotiable] • Embedded knowledge [resides in systemic routines {reification of practice} relationships between technologies, roles, formal procedures and emergent routines] • Encoded knowledge [information conveyed by signs and symbols, traditional forms {hard copy} and emergent forms {electronic}

  20. Décrivant les caractéristiques organisationnelles que les connaissances culturelles: la base de practiceâBlackler (1995) Knowledge, Knowledge Work and Organizations: An Overview and Interpretation in Organization Studies November 1995 vol. 16 no. 6 1021-1046 Connaissances Embrained [dépend des compétences conceptuelles et les capacités cognitives]Connaissance incarnée [orienté vers l'action susceptible d'être seulement en partie explicite, essentiellement tacite, «la façon dont nous faisons les choses ici»]Connaissances Encultured [désigne le processus de réalisation compréhensions partagées par le biais d'acculturation socialisation linguistique, socialement construites et négociable]Connaissances intégrées [réside dans les routines systémique {} réification de la pratique des relations entre les technologies, les rôles, les procédures formelles et des routines émergentes]Connaissances codées [information véhiculée par des signes et des symboles, des formes traditionnelles {} et copie papier formes émergentes {} électroniques

  21. Embrained knowledge • Technical knowledge • Formal knowledge • Knowledge in books • Knowledge at a theoretical level • Theories like ‘learning theory’, Piaget for example • Theories like Eraut’s theory of informal learning

  22. Embodied knowledge • Knowing about daily ways of behaving in a group • Could be knowing about how individuals react • People’s habits • Talkative open culture or more closed and formal • Informality or formality • When things get done • Where things get done • How best to get things done • Not written down: tacit

  23. Encultured knowledge • This refers to the shared discourse of the group • Could be references to nick names • Could be the technical vocabulary of an organisation (medical environment) • Could be knowledge of the word or phrase attached to a way of doing something (e.g. sledging which means criticising or verbally undermining trying to put somebody off, could be very situated or contextualised

  24. Embedded knowledge • This refers to knowledge of systems and ways of doing things • The forms you need • The process you have to go through to get things done • Think about the process you need to go through if you want an extension to an assignment-this is embedded knowledge

  25. Encoded knowledge • This is a bit more tricky, it refers to the form that communications are made within a group • Could be by text message • Could be by email • Could be mainly face to face • Differences between a ‘memo’ culture or a face to face culture

  26. Using these depictions, identify the knowledge resources within a classroom

  27. Pathways of cultural knowledge acquisition Public/propositional knowledge Practice, experience Explicit learning Episodic memory Semantic memory Implicit learning Behaviour or performance

  28. How do we learn informally? Implicit learning Reactive learning Deliberative learning

  29. Knowledge acquisition • Explicit pathway-events are stored in episodic memory and used to construct generalisations • Implicit pathway-events are stored but no generalisations are made • Sometimes explicit and implicit knowledge suggest how propositional knowledge might be used • Propositional knowledge can be helpful in reflecting on and clarifying the meaning of an event or experience

  30. Learning informally: the importance of the idea of ‘practice’ • Informal learning often occurs through practice or learning about a practice. Practice is at the heart of informal learning • Giddens’ notion of the practical refers to behaviour which is recurrent or routine i.e. happens on a day to day basis and is rooted in the normal routine of daily life. Therefore a ‘practice’ is a way of doing something, the pattern of which is reproduced in a social context [i.e. work] according to certain rules. • A practice is recurrent or routine, rule governed behaviour • Can we say that the ‘rules’ constitute the knowledge base of informal learning?

  31. Learning informally: the importance of the idea of ‘practice’ L'apprentissage informel se produit souvent par la pratique ou l'apprentissage d'une pratique. La pratique est au cœur de l'apprentissage informel La notion de Giddens de la pratique se réfère à un comportement qui est récurrente ou de routine à savoir qui se passe sur une base quotidienne et est ancrée dans la routine de la vie quotidienne. Par conséquent, une «pratique» est un moyen de faire quelque chose, dont le motif est reproduit dans un contexte social [c.-travail] selon certaines règles. Une pratique est récurrente ou systématique le comportement général, régi Peut-on dire que les «règles» constituent la base de connaissances de l'apprentissage informel?

  32. Learning informally through practice (Wenger 1999, p 4] “A concept of practice includes: • both the explicit and the tacit • what is said and what is left unsaid; • what is represented and what is assumed. • the language, tools, documents, images, symbols, well defined roles, specified criteria, codified procedures, regulations, and contracts that various practices make explicit for a variety of purposes. • all the implicit relations, tacit conventions, subtle cues, untold rules of thumb, recognizable intuitions, specific perceptions, well tuned sensitivities, embodied understandings, underlying assumptions and shared world views. Most of these may never be articulated, yet they are signs of membership in communities of practice”

  33. Learning informally through practice (Wenger 1999, p 4] «Un concept de pratiquecomprend: tant l'explicite et le tacite,ce qui est dit et ce qui est non-dits; ce qui est représenté et ce qui est supposé. le langage, outils, documents, images, symboles, des rôles bien définis, des critères précis, des procédures codifiées, les règlements et les contrats que les pratiques diverses de rendre explicite pour une variété de fins. toutes les relations implicites, conventions tacites, les indices subtils, les règles incalculable de pouce, intuitions reconnaissables, des perceptions spécifiques, des sensibilités bien réglé, les compréhensions incarnée, hypothèses sous-jacentes et visions du monde partagées. La plupart de ces ne peut jamais être articulés, et pourtant ils sont des signes d'appartenance à des communautés de pratique »

  34. cultureulture Culture produces practices Knowledge Resources practices practices practices practices practices practices practices

  35. Change concepts: overview • Changing cultures: reconstruction of meaning • Changing practices: knowing what a practice is! • Changing systems [connective procedures] • Changing structures [architecture of or connections between sets of procedures] Change is a process not a thing or a moment

  36. Summary • Organisations consist of cultures • Cultures consist of organisational practices • knowledge of organisational practices is learned • Change involves ‘moving’ organisational practices

  37. Types of Change • Type I that which is done to us • Type 2 that which we do to ourselves • Type 3 that which we do to others

  38. Change levels • Macro Structures, national systems, organisation at regional levels, orientation • Meso Organisational changes, goals, cultures systems, practices • Micro Individuals, small groups, practices, cultural change

  39. Adaptation High Level of imposed change Low Low High Ability to cope with change

  40. Attitudes to change Outright hostility Token compliance Grudging acceptance Lukewarm enthusiasm Real commitment Lip service to new ideas Subversion Comply only where immediate benefit evident Momentum stalled by obstacles Enthusiastic Evangelical Willing to take risks Persistent in the face of barriers Refusal Resignation Industrial action Increasing level of involvement Increasing depth and durability of change achieved After:

  41. Outright hostility Token compliance Grudging acceptance Lukewarm enthusiasm Real commitment Lip service to new ideas Subversion Comply only where immediate benefit evident Momentum stalled by obstacles Enthusiastic Evangelical Willing to take risks Persistent in the face of barriers Refusal Resignation Industrial action Increasing level of involvement Increasing depth and durability of change achieved

  42. Desire to change Defiance Reluctance Opposition Sabotage Subterfuge Change Commitment Enthusiasm Engagement Success High Capability to change Detached Disengaged Belligerent Resigned Impassive Frustration Anxiety Hindrance Dissatisfaction Failure Low Low High Desire to change Ralph (2007)

  43. Levels of involvement Ralph (1997)

  44. How do we experience change? Ralph (1997)

  45. How do we experience change? Insecurity Pain Suspicion Fear Sense of loss - bereavement Opportunity Exhausting Challenges Retrograde step Improvement Sceptical of benefits Resignation Obstacle Resistance Out of Control “What’s in it for me?” Demoralising Excitement Energising Chaos Threat Unnecessary Weariness Disbelief Sense of achievement Uncertainty Transformation Relief Disappointment After: Richard Seel

  46. Stages of response to change Peaceful acceptance of New Reality Shock and Disbelief Acceptance of Ending (Grieving) Resistance Callan, J. (1993) Individual and organizational strategies for coping with organizational change in Work & Stress: An International Journal of Work, Health & Organisations Volume 7, Issue 1, 1993

  47. Cycle of change Contentment Renewal Denial Confusion

  48. Responses to Change Ants mechanistic compliant directed obedient Bees flexible empowered searching integrated Known Knowledge of ‘what to change’ Frogs oblivious routine stagnant Rabbits bewildered petrified overcome Unknown Unknown Known Knowledge of ‘why we should change’