CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction Presented by: Susan Whitcraft, Elizabeth Wilson, & Terri Wyatt A Teaching Strategy
Overview of CAI as a Teaching Strategy • Definition of CAI: • The use of computers to present drills, practice exercises, and tutorials to the student. Engages the student with active learning. • Description of CAI: • CAI uses computer programs that are interactive and teaches a topic using animation, sound, and demonstration. • They allow students to work at their own pace, problem solve in groups, or work individually. • CAI offers a different type of activity and a change of pace from the traditional teacher- learner group instruction.
Overview of CAI as a Teaching Strategy Educational theory: • Androgogy education theory • Focuses on adult learners • Has a framework based on assumptions. The assumptions that correlate with CAI are: • Adults need to be responsible for their decisions of education such as involving them in the planning and evaluation of their instruction. CAI is more of an independent educational strategy so the students feel more responsible for completing their work. • Adults learn better from internal motivators than from external motivators. In order for CAI to be successful the learner has to be internally motivated to complete the work. • Adults are most interested learning subjects that are relevant to their job or personal life. Computers are a part of most adult jobs, so using them to learn should increase their interest.
Uses of CAI • Ways to apply to a teaching situation: • Self-directed study • Classroom instructional strategy • Visualization of procedures/interactions • Supplement theory • Reinforce theory content • Recommend as a study guide
Uses of CAI • Examples of learning situations: • Independent learning • Cooperative learning • Collaborative learning • Adjunct to theory content • Remedial learning • Test review • NCLEX preparation
Uses of CAI • Appropriate settings to use CAI: • Personal environment (for online course work) • Home • Personal computer • Mobile computing • Classroom setting • Computer lab • Library • Practitioner’s office or clinic setting
Advantages of using CAI • Pros: • Provides info/practice opportunity at point of need • Online modules available regardless of location • Interactive potential with immediate feedback • Meets variety of learner preferences • Aural, visual, reading, kinesthetic • Allows learner to progress at own pace • Offers more efficient use of instructor’s time
Disadvantages of using CAI • Cons: • Decreases face-to-face engagement • Rapid advances in technology requiring updates • Webcast & live broadcast modules available only at specified times • Purchase of programs required • Expenses associated with purchase of programs and computer equipment • Learner/instructor computer literacy necessary
Possible Adaptations of CAI • Examples of need to adapt: • Learners with visual/hearing disability • Learners with physical disabilities • Teachers & students sharing responsibility for learning
Possible Adaptations of CAI • Ways to adapt: • Use assistive technology devices – • Screens to enlarge text for visually impaired • Screen readers convert text to spoken language • Touch screens for physically impaired (i.e. arthritis) • Incorporate adequate training to ensure motivation and increase student comfort, compliance, and responsibility with self instruction
Evaluating Effectiveness of CAI • How effectiveness can be evaluated: • Immediate feedback to the learner • CAI measured performance scores • Instructor-initiated knowledge scores • Traditional testing methods • Performance/skills assessments • Research studies
Evaluating Effectiveness of CAI “Studies of the comparison of learner achievement using content examinations have revealed either equal or higher performance of the CAI groups in the vast majority of cases. The vast number of studies that have been conducted give weight to the conclusion that CAI is an effective way to achieve student learning” (DeYoung, 2009)
Summary • CAI’s provide an alternative to traditional instructional methods • Variety of formats available • Engages technological based learners • Allows diversity in teaching methods • Applicable to multiple learning situations • Offers instructor more time to devote to problem-solving & critical thinking activities • Effectiveness supported through research “As nurses, we need tocontinue to think creatively about how to use technology in education and participate in research about its effectiveness”
For more information….. American Institutes for Research. (2010, January). Computer assisted instruction and mathematics. Retrieved on June 20, 2010 from http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/computeraided_math.asp Bastable, S. (2008). Nurse as educator (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Jones & Bartlett. Bloomfield, J., Roberts, J., & White, A. (2010). The effect of computer-assisted learning versus conventional teaching methods on the acquisition and retention of handwashing theory and skills in pre-qualification nursing students: A randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies 47, 287-294. doi: 10.1016/j.jnurstu.2009.08.003 DeYoung, S. (2009). Teaching strategies for nurse educators (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Hutchinson, D. (2007). Teaching practices for effective cooperative learning in an online learning environment (OLE). Journal of Information Systems Education, 18(3), 357-367. Retrieved from Education Research Complete database. Shovein, J., Huston, C., Fox, S., & Damazo, B. (2005). Challenging traditional teaching and learning paradigms: Online learning and emancipatory teaching. Nursing Education Perspectives, 26(6), 340-343. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.