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  1. Computer Assisted Learning/Multimedia Jeff James Educational Development Unit, PolyU X6290 etjJames@polyu.edu.hk

  2. CAL CBI CBT CAI CALL CMI

  3. CAL emphasis on learning

  4. This session: Overview of computer assisted learning.

  5. more specifically: I. types of CAL software, II. hypermedia/multimedia environments, III. authoring languages, IV. design considerations, V. a critical view of CAL/multimedia.

  6. I. Types of CAL Software • drill and practice • games • simulations • tutorials • tools • (hypermedia) • (CMI software; e.g.. tests)

  7. categorizing is difficult: imagine a “space travel game” in a “hyper environment” with a tutorial component.

  8. • drill and practice Typically, drill and practice activities are supplementary to the “normal” teaching process.

  9. • drill and practice Drill and practice is good for fundamental mastery.

  10. • drill and practice Can be thought of as a “flash card” system of the stimulus-response model.

  11. • drill and practice Speed is important for both presentation and feedback.

  12. • drill and practice often incorporates: • randomness • record keeping

  13. • games Often CAL software is presented in game format.

  14. • games May include point scoring, and can be individual or team format.

  15. • games Have the potential for a very motivational environment.

  16. • simulations Can provide microworlds (e.g., a world without friction or gravity).

  17. • simulations The University of Illinois has successfully provided computer- driven “dry” chemistry labs.

  18. simulations are • safe • inexpensive • fast • slow • clean • possible

  19. • tutorials Self-paced, where the computer acts as an infinitely-patient, all-wise tutor. Is this guy slow, or what??

  20. Typically a good tutorial will have a structure(s) as follows: . . . give information give info. OK test (needs help) remediate

  21. give information give info. ... OK test (needs help) remediate can be very complex

  22. • tools Typically, application programs which are being used by the student for learning.

  23. • examples of tools • spreadsheet programs • statistics packages • hypermedia software • desktop publishing software • presentation software • CAD software • etc. q

  24. II. Hypermedia &Multimedia Environments

  25. hyper- pref. ‘over’, ‘above’, ‘too’... eg. hypersensitive or hypertension

  26. Ted Nelson described himself as being hyperactive.

  27. hypermedia can be thought of as “chunks” of information (nodes), stored in a structure, and accessed by links (buttons).

  28. • hypertext Textual information, structured by use of links and nodes. Here is some example text which is going to be shrunk down to a size which is barely recognisable; good too because then my poor spelling won’t be recognised. Now, I have run out of example text. Oh well; so what? Here is some example text which is going to be shrunk down to a size which is barely recognisable; good too because then my poor spelling won’t be recognised. Now, I have run out of example text. Oh well; so what? Here is some example text which is going to be shrunk down to a size which is barely recognisable; good too because then my poor spelling won’t be recognised. Now, I have run out of example text. Oh well; so what?

  29. • hypermedia Like hypertext, but including sound, video, and/or animation. Here is some example text which is going to be shrunk down to a size which is barely recognisable; good too because then my poor spelling won’t be recognised. Now, I have run out of example text. Oh well; so what? Here is some example text which is going to be shrunk down to a size which is barely recognisable; good too because then my poor spelling won’t be recognised. Now, I have run out of example text. Oh well; so what? Here is some example text which is going to be shrunk down to a size which is barely recognisable; good too because then my poor spelling won’t be recognised. Now, I have run out of example text. Oh well; so what?

  30. • multimedia Involves more than one medium (>2 really, since most literature contains graphics and text).

  31. • multimedia Involves the use of sound, animation, and/or video as well as text and graphics.

  32. • multimedia 1 Even Ted Nelson said he didn’t know the difference between hypermedia and multimedia. 1 Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia Conference, June 1994, Vancouver. [Ted Nelson coined the term hypertext (“non-sequential writing”)].

  33. • multimedia Computer-controlled multimedia allows the seamless integration of media.

  34. • multimedia Multimedia can provide a sensory-rich learning environment.

  35. • multimedia Interactive multimedia is the incorporation of multimedia with human-computer interaction.

  36. • multimedia Interactive multimedia provides an obvious educational advantage over current broadcasting & publishing which is passive.

  37. Speed Information regarding the concept of speed can appear as text here. I know very little about it myself, so perhaps a multimedia tutorial about it would help me. To learn about it, select options below, some perhaps more than once.. Choose one option below: play speed movie take a quiz more information WWW tutorial

  38. Metaphors abound. A computer screen of information can be a slide, a page, a card, a node, whatever... Speed Information regarding the concept of speed can appear as text here. I know very little about it myself, so perhaps a multimedia tutorial about it would help me. To learn about it, select options below, some perhaps more than once.. Choose one option below: play speed movie take a quiz more information WWW tutorial

  39. There are many possible “HyperDesigns”. Linear ..... .....

  40. There are many possible “HyperDesigns”. Network

  41. Possible applications of less complex designs include electronic books, and information/ training kiosks.

  42. Hyperdesigns give the user opportunity for: • more control, but • require careful planning and analysis. q

  43. III. Authoring Languages Packages exist which allow the creation of CAL packages by non-computer programmers.

  44. Authoring packages exist for a variety of platforms. For example:

  45. You can use HyperCard on a Macintosh to create stacks of cards.

  46. You can use ToolBook on a PC to create a book (of pages).

  47. You can run Authorware on Mac, PC, or UNIX environments (to create flow lines).

  48. Examples of other software include: • Icon Author (Windows, UNIX) • Macromedia Director (all) • TenCore • cT q

  49. IV. Design Considerations Two important points in designing CAL software are: • the design team and • user interface design

  50. Typically, the design team can circulate ideas on storyboards (hard copies of screen templates).