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Computer-Assisted Learning

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  1. Computer-Assisted Learning Deb Rice MSN 7750 Teaching & Learning

  2. Computer-Assisted Learning • Interactive instructional technique in which a computer is used to present instructional material, monitor learning, and select additional instructional material in accordance with individual learner needs. (Bastable, 2008)

  3. Educational Theory Cognitive Learning Theory • Reward is not necessary for the learner • Individuals vary widely with regard to internal & external dynamics and other characteristics • Cognitions are based on how external events are conceptualized, organized and represented within each person’s mental framework. • Research indicates that adults generally do better with self-directed learning (emphasizing learner control, autonomy, and initiative), an explicit rationale for learning, a problem-oriented rather than subject-oriented approach, and the opportunity to use their experiences and skills to help others. (Bastable, 2008)

  4. Educational Theory Nine events & corresponding cognitive processes that activate effective learning • Gain the learner’s attention • Inform the learner of the objectives and expectations • Stimulate the learner’s recall of prior learning • Present information • Provide guidance to facilitate the learner’s understanding • Have the learner demonstrate the information or skill • Give feedback to the learner • Assess the learner’s performance • Work to enhance retention and transfer through application and varied practice (Bastable, 2008, p.62-63)

  5. Three Ways to Apply CAL • Distance Learning / Education Web-based education (internet & WWW) Computer & video technologies • Computer-mediated courseware (interactive CD-ROM) • On-line Classes May use a combination of any or all of the above • Telemedicine (yes, I added a 4th) (Der-Fa, Zu-Chun & Yun-Ju; 2009)

  6. Settings to Use CAL • Home - educational CD’s, distant education, WWW educational sites • Schools / Universities – videos, educational CD’s, distant education, simulation activities • Computer labs – webinar, interactive software CD’s • Organizations / Corporations – webinars, teleconferencing, annual mandatory's, HR / training modules • Hospitals- patient simulation models, skill CD’s, telehealth • Testing Centers – computer testing modules (CRNP exam!!!!) • Senior Centers – health CD’s, videos, WWW educational sites • Libraries – reading activity CD’s, videos, interactive educational program

  7. Advantages to CAL • Allows the use of more than one medium to present information, thereby accommodating more than one learning preference • Allows learning to suit students pace • Interactive • Access is easy and flexible • Supplement traditional classroom or lecture materials • Gives prompt feedback • More accurate monitoring of learner progress (Ballantine & Hill, 2004; Bastable, 2008; Der-Fa, Zu-Chun & Yun-Ju; 2009; Perciful, 1993)

  8. Disadvantages to CAL • Lack of computers or resources • Must be internally or self motivated • Hardware or software problems / internet connectivity • Must be familiar computer hardware and software • Time commitment required to prepare for and complete simulations • Resistance of learners and teachers to utilize CAL resources • Individual differences in learning styles (Ballantine & Hill, 2004; Bastable, 2008; Der-Fa, Zu-Chun & Yun-Ju; 2009; Perciful, 1993)

  9. Adapting CAL • Supplement CAL with traditional classroom teaching & lecturing, written materials such as textbooks, videos, and other internet sites, computer programs or CD’s. • Multidisciplinary collaboration with individuals with expertise in the underlying education and technical areas. (Der-Fa, Zu-Chun & Yun-Ju; 2009)

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of CAL • Method of triangulation: refers either to using more than one method of data collection or to collecting data from more than one standpoint in an attempt to gain a fuller picture. For example, questions related to navigation and level of satisfaction can be dealt with by questionnaires and supervised learning sessions with the CD. Attitudinal aspects can be explored by focus groups. One can employ several research tools but also conduct the evaluation in more than one group or school. (Vivekananda-Schmidt, P., Hassell, A., & McLean, M., 2004)

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of CAL • Does the content match the learning objectives? • Have the different mediums / techniques been used appropriately? • Is it easy to navigate through the program or CD? • Do learners’ perceive the program or CD to be useful or beneficial for learning? • Does it compliment the existing learning resources? • How is benefit defined from the teachers and learner’s perspective? • Does the use of the CD or program enhance skills? This is better than the current approach? (Vivekananda-Schmidt, P., Hassell, A., & McLean, M., 2004)

  12. Research / CAL • A single-blind, randomized, controlled study of 166 undergraduate medical students, involving an educational intervention of either a structured lecture or a computer-based teaching package • Results: There was no difference in knowledge between both groups at baseline or immediately after teaching. Both groups made significant gains in knowledge after teaching. • Students who attended the lecture rated their subjective knowledge and skills at a statistically significantly higher level than students who had used the computers. • Students who had used the computer package scored higher on an objective measure of assessment skills. They did not perceive the computer package to be useful as the traditional lecture format, despite finding it easy to use and recommending its use to other students. (Williams, Aubin, Harkin & Cottrell, 2001)

  13. References Ballantine, L. & Hill, R. (2004). On education: computer-assisted learning. Canadian Association of Nephrology Nurses and Technologists, 14(1), 51-52. Retrieved March 23, 2009 from http://mylibrary.wilmu.edu:2035/ehost/ resultsadvanced?.  Bastable, S. (2008). Nurse as Educator: Principles of Teaching and Learning forNursing Practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.  Der-Fa, L., Zu-Chun, L., & Yun-Ju, L. (2009). Effects of a web-based course on nursing skills and knowledge learning. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(2), 70-77. Retrieved March 26, 2009 from http://mylibrary.wilmu. edu:2053 /ehost /resultsadvanced?. Eley, R. Fallon, T., Soar, J., Bulkstra, E., & Hegney, D. (2001). Nurses’ confidence and experience in using information technology. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25(3), 23-34. Retrieved March 26, 2009 from http://mylibrary. wilmu.edu:2035/ehost/resultsadvanced?. Muramoto, M., Campbell, J., & Salazar, Z. ( 2003). Provider training and education in disease management: current and innovative technology. Disease Management and Health Outcomes, 11(10), 633-645. Retrieved March 23, 2009 from http://mylibrary.wilmu.edu:2035/ehost/resultsadvanced?. Nickle, P. (2007). Cognitive apprenticeship: Laying the groundwork for mentoring registered nurses in the intensive care unit. Canadian Association of Critical Care Nurses, 18(4), 19-26. Retrieved March 26, 2009 from http:// mylibrary. wilu.edu:2053/ehost/resultsadvanced?.  Perciful, E. (1993). Curriculum planning and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) within clinical nursing education. Annual Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care, 414-418. Retrieved March 23, 2009 from http://mylibrary.wilmu.edu:2053/ehost/ resultsadvanced?.  Vivekananda-Schmidt, P., Hassell, A., & McLean, M. (2004). The evaluation of Multimedia-learning packages in the education of health professionals: experience of a musculoskeletal examination package. Nurse Researcher, 11(3), 43-55. Retrieved March 23, 2009 from http://mylibrary.wilmu.edu:2053/ehost /resultsadvanced?.  Williams, C., Aubin, S., Harkin, P., & Cottrell, D. (2001). A randomized, controlled, single-blind trial of teaching provided by a computer-based multimedia package versus lecture. Medical Education, 35, 847-854. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://mylibrary.wilmu.edu:2053/ehost/resultsadvanced?.