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The Crusades & The Rise of Papal Power PowerPoint Presentation
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The Crusades & The Rise of Papal Power

The Crusades & The Rise of Papal Power

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The Crusades & The Rise of Papal Power

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  1. 1095-1215 The Crusades& The Rise of Papal Power

  2. Overview • Background on Crusades • The First Four Crusades • Albigensian Crusade • 13th Century and Late Medieval Crusading • Consequences of the Crusades

  3. Background on Crusades • Early wars against Muslims • The reconquista (1000-1492) • The Norman conquest of Sicily (11th century) • In cooperation with papacy • By 1060s plans for crusades were under discussion among cardinals and leading bishops

  4. Background • The first crusade was conceived in the mid 11th century and was meant to reverse the capture of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from recent Muslim invasions • Crusades had the effect of rallying the most violent members of Europe around the defense of the Christian religion • Whether consciously conceived as a way to pacify Europe or not, the exportation of violent members of European society to fight in foreign wars had the effect of pacifying European society

  5. The First Crusade • Conceived before the papacy of Gregory VII (1073-85) but first preached by Urban II (1088-99) at Clermont in 1095 • Within a year of his sermon, two groups headed toward Constantinople • The People's Crusade, led by Peter the Hermit; they took the overland route • A slower and smaller contingent of well armed and equipped nobles some sailed to Constantinople while most also took the overland route

  6. The First Crusade • The People's Crusade arrived in Constantinople in late 1096 and received a cool reception • Poorly equipped • Little military experience • Undisciplined • Extraordinary religious faith • The Byzantium Emperor provided transportation across the Bosporus to Asian Minor, where they were almost immediately massacred by Seljuk forces; the survivors returned to Constantinople and joined the knights in 1097

  7. Italy during the early 1000s

  8. What was the purpose of the Council of Clermont? • To initiate the First Crusade • To end the reconquista • To Launch the Norman Conquest • To gather support for the excommunication of the Byzantine Patriarch

  9. Siege of Jerusalem, 1099

  10. Crusader States during the twelfth century

  11. Krak de Chevalier – east of Tripoli

  12. Templars and HospitallersChristian Soldiers of the High Middle Ages

  13. Crusader States during the twelfth century

  14. Cistercian leader during much of the movement’s first century Considered by many contemporaries the holiest man in Europe Preached the Second Crusade, 1147-9 Bernard of Clairvaux

  15. Portugal

  16. Horns of Hattin, 1187

  17. Leaders of the Third Crusade

  18. Fourth Crusade’s Planned Course

  19. Innocent III1161-1216r. 1198-1216

  20. The Venetian Mercantile Empire

  21. The First Crusade • Predominately knights from central & southern France, Normandy, and Norman Sicily • 25,000-30,000 well armed professional soldiers • Different goals from Byzantine “hosts” • Byzantines wanted Asia Minor cleared • Crusaders wanted to capture Jerusalem, which they did by 1099 • On the way there, they also captured the ancient Christian city of Antioch • The Crusaders establish the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which lasts for almost 100 years

  22. Summary of First Crusade • The only Crusade to achieve its initial purpose: the recapture of Jerusalem and much of the Holy Land • The territorial conquests were minor but they military victories demonstrated the ferocity of the western European warriors whose equipment and supplies were poorly suited to the hot, arid conditions of the Near East • Increased contact between Europe and the rest of the Mediterranean

  23. Second Crusade, 1147-49 • Inspired by Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) • Led by Louis VII of France and Conrad III, Holy Roman Emperor • A failure: “an abyss so deep that I must call him blessed who is not scandalized by it.” • Rivalry between the princes and also undermined by princes of the Holy Land • Ended the Marriage of Louis VII and Eleanor of Aquitaine, who married Henry II of England • Failed to take Damascus

  24. Third Crusade, 1189-1193 • Reaction against the rising power of Saladin • Led by • Emperor Frederick Barbarossa • Drowned on the way there • King Phillip Augustus of France • Quarreled with Richard and went home • Richard the Lion Hearted of England • Richard enjoyed military and diplomatic success but failed to recapture Jerusalem; he was later taken hostage by the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry VI • Ultimately this crusade was also a failure

  25. Fourth Crusade, 1198-1204 • Initiated by Innocent III • Led by territorial princes, notably Baldwin of Flanders • Embarcation from Venice • Purpose hijacked by the Venetians: attacks on Zara and Constantinople • Crusaders excommunicated by Innocent III twice but readmitted to the Church both times • Huge influx of booty to the West • Temporary re-unification of Christianity

  26. Albigensian Crusade, 1209-1229 • The Cathars, 1150-1250 • dual gods • anti-clericalism • rival church • support in the Midi • the perfecti • The papal response • the Dominicans • the Crusade • Philip II “Augustus”

  27. Carcassonne

  28. Albi

  29. 13th Century Crusades • 1212: Children’s Crusade • 1228: Crusade of Frederick II • 1234-41: Crusade of Thibault of Champagne and Richard of Cornwall • Crusades of Louis IX (St. Louis) • 1248-54: Sixth Crusade • 1270-2: Seventh Crusade • 1235-90: The “Political” Crusades

  30. Late Medieval Crusades • 1291-1336: Planned French Crusades • 1365: Cypriot Crusade against Alexandria • 1300s & 1400s: Crusades in the Baltic • 1464: Crusade of Pope Pius II

  31. Consequences of the Crusades • Altered balance of power between Europe, Byzantium, and Islamic Caliphates • The extension of papal power • alliance with Normans and then the French against HRE • popular politics • Western Europe comes into more frequent contact with Byzantine and Muslim states • increase of Arabic knowledge • recovery of “lost” texts

  32. The Crusades and the Papacy • Initiated by Urban II (c. 1100) • Reinvigorated by Innocent III (c. 1200) • Crusade as a means of eliminating heresy • Political weapon against Hohenstaufen Emperors in mid-13th century • Strengthening of papal authority • Moral leadership • Military purpose • Papal indulgences

  33. Significance of the Crusades • The next step in Constantine's vision: Militant Christianity • Just War is sanctioned • Western Europe goes on the offensive • Attacks against Byzantines; ascendance of the West • Conquests in mid-East • Maritime benefits for Italian merchants

  34. Summary • Crusades elevated the papacy as the moral leader of western Europe • Reduced violence against Christians by Christians • The crusades initiated the practice of indulgences, which allowed those who could not make the trip to the holy land to sponsor a knight and thereby gain the spiritual advantages of crusading • Brought control of the Mediterranean commerce into the hands of the Italians and especially the Venetians, who made enormous profits from trade with the Middle East

  35. Summary • The Crusades signified a change in the cultural and political position of Europe • Prior to the First Crusade (1095) the western Europeans had been viewed as disorganized barbarians • By the end of the Fourth Crusade (1205) the western Europeans not only gained control of shipping in the Mediterranean but they also demonstrated the ability to develop and adapt technology to their purposes • The period of crusading coincided with a intellectual reawakening in Western Europe