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Cellular respiration. This is the process of transforming Glucose (from your food) into energy (in the form of ATP) ATP stands for: Adenosine tri-phosphate It is the body's usable form of energy Chemical energy is stored in its high energy phosphate bonds

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cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
  • This is the process of transforming Glucose (from your food) into energy (in the form of ATP)
  • ATP stands for: Adenosine tri-phosphate
  • It is the body's usable form of energy
  • Chemical energy is stored in its high energy phosphate bonds
  • Created from adenosine mono-phosphate (AMP) or adenosine di-phosphate (ADP)
functions of atp
Functions of ATP
  • To help us synthesize biologically important molecules (enzymes)
  • Supply energy for motility (muscles for moving)
  • Generates heat
  • Supply energy for transporting nutrients across membranes
glycolysis
Glycolysis
    • Occurs in animals, in the cytoplasm of cells
  • The first step of both Aerobic (with oxygen) and anaerobic (without oxygen) respiration is Glycolysis
  • This process needs you to “spend” 2 ATP to get it started
  • It releases a gross of 4 ATP (so you net 2 more ATP than you started with)
  • The end product is called Pyruvic acid
anaerobic respiration
Anaerobic respiration
  • If there is no oxygen present in the cell, the end product of glycolysis (the pyruvic acid) will transform into lactic acid
  • This lactic acid changes the pH if your cells and makes them hurt (which is one of the reasons why you get sore muscles after a new workout)
  • The whole process of anaerobic respiration (Glycolysis + lactic acid production) only produces a small amount of ATP compared to aerobic respiration
if anaerobic respiration is so bad why do our cells do it
If Anaerobic respiration is so bad, why do our cells do it?
  • It is better than the alternative (which is the muscle cell stops working and you collapse)
  • It produces its little amount of ATP very quickly
  • It works even if there is no Oxygen around
fermentation
Fermentation
  • In fungus, such as yeast, we call Glycolysis “fermentation”
  • The process is the same, producing a net total of 2 ATP and happening when there is no Oxygen present but it produces Ethanol Alcohol and CO2 instead of lactic acid
  • We use this process to help raise our dough when we make bread!
steps in aerobic respiration with oxygen
Steps in Aerobic respiration: (with Oxygen)
  • Glycolysis (same as anaerobic)
  • Transition step (pyruvate moves to mitochondria and is converted to acetyl – CoA
  • Krebs cycle ( in the matrix of the mitochondria)
  • Electron transport chain (in cristae of mitochondria)
the transition step
The transition step
  • At the end of glycolysis sugar has been transformed into pyruvic acid
  • If the is O2 around, then the pyruvic acid goes through the transition step and turns into Acetyl CoA.
  • This process creates CO2 and Hydrogen (but no ATP)
  • The CO2 is breathed out and the H goes on to the electron transport chain
krebs cycle
Krebs cycle
  • Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria
  • Acetyl – CoA (the product of the transition step) enters the Kreb’s cycle and CO2 and H atoms leave the cycle
  • The CO2 is breathed out. The H goes on to the electron transport chain
  • A moderate amount of ATP is produced by the Kreb’s cycle as well
electron transport chain etc
Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
  • Occurs in the cristae of the mitochondria
  • H is carried from the transition step and the Krebs cycle to the ETC
  • Process of H atoms going through ETC produces a lot of ATP
  • At the end the H ions combine with Oxygen to form water
the whole process of cellular respiration
The whole process of cellular respiration
  • This process will Net up to 36 – 38 ATP depending on the type of cell (eukaryotic or prokaryotic)
  • C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38 ATP