Chapter 2 – Forming a New Nation Section Notes Video The Revolutionary Era Creating a New Government Forging the New Republic The Revolutionary Era Creating a New Government Forging the New Republic Maps Quick Facts Battles of the American Revolution, 1778-1781 The Louisiana Purchase Tensions between Britain and America, 1765-1775 Strengths and Weaknesses of the Continental and British Armies The Revolutionary Era Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation The Great Compromise Checks and Balances Creating a New Government Causes and Effects of the War of 1812 Federal Office Terms and Requirements Federal Judicial System Federalism Visual Summary: The Constitution of the United States Images Signing of the Declaration of Independence The Constitutional Convention The Burning of the White House Poll Tax Amendment
The Revolutionary Era • The Main Idea • America declared independence from Great Britain in 1776 • and won the Revolutionary War in 1783. • Reading Focus • What events led to the American Revolution? • Why did the colonists declare independence? • What key events took place as the Revolution continued? • How did Americans achieve victory?
In 1773, the Tea Act gave the British East India control over the tea market. • Colonists resisted Britain’s control by throwing the company’s tea overboard. • Furious British officials enacted four harsh laws, known as the Intolerable Acts, to punish Massachusetts and set an example for other colonies. • In March 1770, five colonists died when British soldiers shot at a protesting crowd, including Crispus Attucks, an African/Native American sailor. • These killings were called the Boston Massacre. • In September 1774, delegates from 12 colonies met in Philadelphia at the First Continental Congress. • The delegates agreed to issue a Declaration of Rights, boycott goods, form a military force of minutemen, and meet again in the spring. Political Protest Continues The Boston Tea Party The Boston Massacre The First Continental Congress
Before the Continental Congress could meet again, war broke out. British general Thomas Gage was ordered to arrest local Patriot leaders, including Samuel Adams and John Hancock, as well as capture weapons the Patriots stored in Concord, Massachusetts. In April 1775, about 700 British troops set out for Concord. Colonial alarm riders, including Paul Revere, rode out to warn the Patriots. By the time the British reached Lexington, about 70 minutemen were waiting. A shot rang out and fighting began, killing eight colonists in the Battle of Lexington. The British then marched to Concord, where a stronger force of minutemen forced them to retreat to Boston. The Battles of Lexington and Concord
Battle of Bunker Hill British troops retreated to Boston after the Battle of Concord and were met by 10,000 militia. The British won the battle, but the Patriots’ brave defense encouraged resistance. Battle of Dorchester Heights Two weeks after Bunker Hill, Washington took command of the struggling Continental Army. Washington’s strategies allowed the Patriots to retake Boston and fortify Dorchester Heights. Declaring Independence • The Second Continental Congress met a few weeks after the Battles of Lexington and Concord, and included Benjamin Franklin, John Hancock, and Thomas Jefferson. • Attitudes toward Britain were mixed. All delegates felt the taxes were unfair, but only some wanted full independence. • The Congress created a Continental Army, led by George Washington. • Other delegates sent a petition to King George III asking for reconciliation. • While the Congress met, battle raged on. Key battles included:
The Declaration of Independence • Intensifying battles made more colonists lean toward independence, as did anger at the king’s unfavorable response to their petition for reconciliation. • Thomas Paine’s pamphlet Common Sense echoed John Locke’s Enlightenment thinking, calling for independence from Britain. • In June of 1776 Virginia issued a citizens’ declaration of rights, the first official call for independence, which Congress discussed. • The Declaration of Independence formally announced the break with Great Britain. It expressed three main ideas • “Inalienable rights” such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness • King George III passed unfair laws and unfairly taxed the colonies • Britain had violated the social contract by passing these laws. • Jefferson wrote the first draft, but the final document was presented on July 2, 1776. Congress approved it two days later on July 4th.
Defeats and Victories Washington moved the Continental Army to New York, where General Howe attacked. The British took control of New York City and Washington’s troops were forced into Pennsylvania. British troops settled down in New Jersey for the winter. Washington ignored traditional European warfare tactics and attacked in winter while the British and Hessians (hired German soldiers) slept. Washington drove the British out of Princeton. Saratoga and its Aftermath Two British generals tried to cut off New England from the rest of the colonies by attacking from two sides. One general did not show up, and the colonists attacked and defeated the other’s troops in Saratoga, New York. The Battle of Saratoga turned the Revolutionary War in the colonists’ favor. Washington’s troops retired to Valley Forge in Pennsylvania, where a harsh winter and lack of supplies killed many. The Revolution Continues
Strengths and Weaknesses African Americans and Women in the Revolutionary War • When Washington took over the army, he barred black soldiers from enlisting, but after Valley Forge more manpower was needed and the order was rescinded. • While men fought, women took over important duties at home.
After Saratoga, action shifted to the South and the western frontier. • Americans won important victories in in present–day Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and part of Minnesota. • Victories gained the colonists help from Europeans, including Bernardo de Gálvez, governor of Spanish Louisiana and Marquis de Lafayette, of France. • These allies would eventually help the colonists win the war. • In 1778 the British stopped sending troops, instead they encouraged loyalists in the colonies to rise up against the Patriots. • Patriot raiders such as Francis Marion, the “Swamp Fox,” hindered loyalists. • The British army won in North Carolina, but British losses were so great that their commander, Lord Cornwallis, stopped the campaign against the colonists. The Last Days of the Revolutionary War War in the West and the South The Colonists Gain Allies The British Shift Strategies
The colonists, helped by Lafayette’s French troops, forced the British to Yorktown Peninsula in Chesapeake Bay. Cornwallis built a fort and waited for the British to rescue them. Washington saw his chance and blocked British ships from rescuing Cornwallis’s troops. After bombardment by land and sea, Cornwallis surrendered on behalf of the British. The Battle of Yorktown was the last major battle of the Revolutionary War. American Victory Though some hoped that America would remain part of the British Empire, the September 3, 1783, Treaty of Paris formalized America’s independence from Britain.
Creating a New Government • The Main Idea • After the Revolution, American leaders struggled to form a national government and eventually wrote the Constitution. • Reading Focus • What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? • What did the founders discuss when drafting the Constitution? • What was involved in ratifying the Constitution?
The states formed new governments quickly after the Declaration of Independence, but had trouble with central government principles. Americans wanted a republic that ruled “with consent of the governed” instead of a monarchy or supreme authority. After the Revolutionary War, America still worked under the Articles of Confederation, which established an association of independent states. Under the Articles, the central government had power to set national policies and carry on foreign relations. The Articles also had several weaknesses: Problems with the Articles of Confederation Congress could not impose taxes to repay war debts. Congress could not regulate trade. 9 of 13 states needed to agree in order to pass laws. All states had to agree to amend the Articles. No executive branch to enforce laws passed by Congress No judicial branch to interpret laws passed by Congress
Struggles Economic problems in the states: New England’s valuable trade with Britain and British West Indies was ruined. Paper money issued during the war wasn’t backed up with gold or silver, which led to inflation. The states collected taxes, sometimes in “hard currency” instead of paper money. People who could not pay taxes were jailed. Poverty led to many riots: During Shays’s Rebellion in Massachusetts, angry farmers shut down debtor courts. Important Plans In 1784 Jefferson proposed a plan to settle the Northwest Territory Each of ten districts could join Congress when population hit 20,000. Later, districts could be admitted as new states. Congress had its own plan Surveyed land was divided into a grid of townships. Each had 36 sections, four government owned. In 1787 Congress passed a law for western settlement, promising religious freedom but not allowing slavery. The Pros and Cons of Independence
Frustration with the Articles of Confederation built for years among many Americans. In the fall of 1786 George Washington and James Madison convened a meeting of the states in Maryland, but delegates from only five showed up. Congress then called the states to meet in Philadelphia in 1787 for a Constitutional Convention. James Madison kept a diary with a detailed account of this event, which was a turning point in American history. Because of his role, James Madison is often called the Father of the Constitution. The convention unanimously chose George Washington as its president. The Constitutional Convention
Virginia Plan • Proposed a new form of government with three branches: executive, judicial, legislative • The legislature would be bicameral, with an upper and lower house. • Members would be chosen in proportion to each state’s population. • Disliked by small states that would have less power • New Jersey Plan • Retained many of the features of the Confederation • Gave Congress additional powers • Suggested a one-house legislature with equal representation for each state • Tried to equalize power for states • The Great Compromise • A Connecticut plan to balance state powers • Two-house legislature: upper house Senate represented the state, the lower house the population. • The Three-Fifths Compromise allowed only part of the slave population to be counted. Plans for Representation in Government
The delegates needed to find a balance of power between the Congress and the president. • Questions arose about states’ rights versus federal powers. • The outcome was a compromise: instead of people directly choosing a president, state legislatures chose electors to do it. • The delegates set up a system of checks and balances. • Judicial Branch • Supreme Court and lower courts • Interprets laws as they relate to the Constitution • Legislative Branch • Makes the laws • Gives advice and consent to president • Can pass over vetoes with two-thirds vote • Executive Branch • President and cabinet • Carries out laws • Makes treaties and nominates judges • Vetoes laws Providing Check and Balances
When the Constitution was finally published, supporters and opponents presented their arguments. • Wanted to ratify, or accept, the Constitution • Believed in a strong national government • Believed the separation of powers in the Constitution limited government power • Popular with the wealthy • Inspired the Federalist Papers, essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay, which offered practical arguments for strong government • Feared a strong national government would lead to tyranny and abuse of states’ rights and individual liberties • Did not trust government to protect people’s rights • Popular with farmers and planters • Thought the new government favored the wealthy and educated over ordinary people Ratifying the Constitution Debates Federalists Anti- federalists
Before agreeing to ratify the Constitution, Antifederalists wanted a Bill of Rights added to protect individual liberties. Only 9 of 13 states needed to ratify the Constitution Some important states only agreed because they were promised a Bill of Rights. Article V gave Congress or state conventions the right to propose amendments, which then went to the states for approval. James Madison, a supporter of the Constitution, took charge of getting a Bill of Rights through Congress so that the document would finally be ratified. By 1791, ten approved amendments became the Bill of Rights. The Fight for Amendments
The Bill of Rights protected individual rights. The first eight amendments dealt with individual civil liberties. The Ninth Amendment stated that listing certain rights in this document did not mean that other unlisted rights did not exist. The Tenth Amendment defined two types of government powers: delegated and reserved powers. Delegated powers are those given out to the three branches of government. Reserved powers belonged to the states or the people. Most of the amendments echoed rights listed in the Virginia Declaration of Rights, written by George Mason. The Bill of Rights
Forging the New Republic • The Main Idea • Under presidents Washington, Adams, and Jefferson, the United States continued to shape its new government while facing both foreign and domestic challenges. • Reading Focus • What actions did Washington take when he became president? • What challenges did the United States face in the 1790s? • What were the main events of Jefferson’s presidency? • What were the causes and effects of the War of 1812?
The Constitution mentions “heads of the executive departments” but does not specify what those cabinet departments are. Congress created the first three executive departments and Washington began to choose his cabinet: Hamilton wanted a strong centralized nation with a role in world affairs. Jefferson envisioned a more rural nation with power residing in state governments. Along with James Madison and Jefferson, those who shared these beliefs called themselves the Democratic-Republicans. The Judiciary Act of 1789 organized a judicial branch with a six-person Supreme Court, as well as district courts and circuit courts of appeal. Washington named John Jay as chief justice of the Supreme Court. Washington Takes Action as President Henry Knox became secretary of war. Alexander Hamilton, a Federalist, became secretary of the treasury. Thomas Jefferson, an Antifederalist, was secretary of state.
The new government had no money to pay for daily expenses, and owed money to foreign nations, private lenders, and soldiers. • Hamilton did not share Republican ideals, and believed the wealthy were the key to a stable government. • Hamilton created a controversial three–point plan. 3. The United States should create a national bank and mint to stabilize the banking system. The federal government should take on both state and national debt. • 2. The government should raise revenue by passing tariffs. • Some thought Hamilton’s plan favored the wealthy who bought war bonds from original bondholders. • Southerners protested — they had already paid their war debts. • Tensions in the North and South were partially solved by moving the capital from New York to Philadelphia, and finally to Washington, D.C. Hamilton’s Financial Plan
By far the most controversial part of Hamilton’s plan was the idea of a national bank. Some people, such as Jefferson, believed the government did not have the power to create a national bank because it was not specifically granted in the Constitution. Those people were called strict constructionists. Some people, such as Hamilton, pointed out that the Constitution allows actions that are not strictly prohibited, including a creating a national bank. Those people were called loose constructionists. Jefferson urged Washington to veto the bank bill, but Hamilton convinced him that being flexible was important to the government. Hamilton and Jefferson’s differences led to the creation of political parties. Those who supported Jefferson were the Democratic-Republicans. Those who supported Hamilton were the Federalists. The Bank of the United States
The French Revolution In 1789 France exploded into revolution over food shortages, high prices, and taxes. The revolutionary government won and France became a constitutional monarchy. In 1793, radicals called Jacobians took over, declared a republic, and beheaded and imprisoned thousands in a Reign of Terror. Democratic-Republicans supported the French Revolution because it was a turn toward liberty. Federalists were unhappy that the government was overthrown and that France was at war. Washington issued the Neutrality Proclamation because he believed that the prosperity of the U.S. depended on neutrality. Jay’s and Pinckney’s Treaties Chief Justice John Jay negotiated Jay’s Treaty, which required Britain to Pay damages for ships they had seized from the U.S. Vacate their forts in the Northwest Territory The treaty was unpopular in the U.S. because many thought the British should have been punished more harshly. In Pickney’s Treaty, the U.S. settled boundary disputes with Spain over Spanish Florida. This treaty opened the frontier to further settlement. The United States Faces Challenges Abroad
The Whiskey Rebellion • 1794: Farmers objected to Hamilton’s tax on whiskey. • They attacked tax collectors and burned barns of those who told where whiskey was stilled. • Washington responded quickly, making it clear that rebellion was not tolerated. • Northwest Conflict • Americans fought Native Americans in the Northwest Territory • 1794: General Anthony Wayne defeated Native Americans at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. • The Treaty of Greenville then claimed most of the Indian land in the territory. • President Adams • John Adams wanted better relations with France. • Adams sent three diplomats, but French officials demanded bribes and a loan. • Outrage over this allowed Congress to pass laws protecting against foreign enemies and domestic dissent. The United States Faces Challenges at Home
1800: first election that changed the party in power • The tied election between Jefferson and Burr led to the 12th Amendment, which set up separate ballots for president and vice president • Jefferson’s presidency was to be guided by two principles: • Reducing taxes passed under Hamilton’s plan • Reducing the size and influence of the federal government • Jefferson’s March 1801 inauguration date gave Federalists time to create several new judgeships. • Adams worked late into the night appointing Federalists. • Secretary of State James Madison refused to deliver a commission to one of the “midnight judges.” • In Marbury v. Madison, the Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution couldn’t make Madison deliver it. • This crucial decision established the Supreme Court’s right to declare laws unconstitutional. Jefferson’s Presidency Key Election Facts Inaugural Address Supreme Court Grows Stronger
The Louisiana Purchase • One of Jefferson’s major achievements was the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France, known as the Louisiana Purchase. • The purchase of new territory raised complicated questions for Jefferson. • He was a strict constructionist and followed the Constitution literally. • The Constitution didn’t give him the authority to purchase new land. • Jefferson finally decided that the right to purchase territory was implicit in the constitutional power to make treaties. • Once the purchase was approved, Jefferson sent out expeditions, including the Lewis and Clark expedition. • The Lewis and Clark expedition reached the Pacific Ocean and mapped and surveyed much territory along the way.
Americans were happy about the Louisiana Purchase and reelected Jefferson by a landslide in 1804. In 1803 the Napoleonic Wars broke out between France and Great Britain. The U.S. was involved, as both French and British warships stopped American merchant ships, and the British began seizing and drafting Americans at sea. Americans were angered by the British seizures and also when they discovered the British were helping Native Americans against the settlers in the Northwest Territory. A group of young members of Congress known as the War Hawks called for war against the British to protect American interests. The War of 1812
Causes British impressment of American sailors International conflicts over commerce British military aid to Native Americans on the Northwest Territory frontier Effects Foreign respect for the U.S. National pride Increase in American manufacturing Less Native American resistance The War of 1812: Causes and Effects • The War of 1812 was the second war between the British and Americans in North America. It ranged from Canada in the north to Louisiana in the south. • In the final battle, Americans won a decisive victory when General Andrew Jackson led American troops against a large British force in New Orleans. • Unfortunately, while Jackson fought at New Orleans, a peace treaty had already been signed. Slow communications prevented Jackson from receiving the message.