Peter Paul Rubens Elevation of the Cross Antwerp Cathedral, Antwerp, Belgium 1610oil on panel15 ft. 2 in. x 11 ft. 2 in.
In his Elevation of the Cross Rubens synthesized his study of classical antiquity with the work of the Italian masters Michelangelo, Tintoretto and Caravaggio, while adding his own dynamism. Three features that contribute to the drama of the scene: Foreshortened anatomy and twisted figures. Christ is placed on the cross diagonally which cuts dynamically across the picture while inclining back into it. Strong modeling in light and dark. Peter Paul Rubens Elevation of the Cross Antwerp Cathedral, Antwerp, Belgium 1610oil on panel15 ft. 2 in. x 11 ft. 2 in.
Peter Paul Rubens The Victory of Eucharistic Truth over Heresy ca. 1626oil on board33 7/8 in. x 41 3/8 in.
Peter Paul Rubens The Three Graces oil on canvas87 in. x 71 1/4 in.
Peter Paul Rubens Drawing of Laocoön ca. 1600-1608black and white chalk drawing with bistre washapproximately 1 ft. 7 in. x 1 ft. 7 in.
The famous Florentine House of Medici commissioned Rubens to paint a cycle memorializing and glorifying her career and that of her late husband was Marie de’Midici. Peter Paul Rubens Arrival of Marie de’ Medici at Marseilles 1622-1625oil on canvasapproximately 5 ft. 1 in. x 3 ft. 9 1/2 in.
The painting that embodies Rubens’ attitude toward war was Allegory of the Outbreak of War. Peter Paul Rubens Allegory of the Outbreak of War 1638oil on canvas6 ft. 9 in. x 11 ft. 3 7/8 in.
Architect fallen backwards: • What is built in peace for the benefit and ornament of cities is laid in ruin and razed by the forces of arms. • Book and paper at the feet of Mars: • War tramples on literature and other refinements. • Sorrowing woman in black: • Unhappy Europe. Allegorical figures symbolized: Monsters: • Plague and famine. Woman with a broken lute: • Harmony cannot coexist beside the discord of war.
Van Dyck specialized in Court portraiture. His style best be characterized as courtly manner of great elegance, and dramatic compositions of great quality. Anthony Van Dyck Charles I Dismounted ca. 1635oil on canvas9 ft. x 7 ft.
Clara Peeters Still Life with Flowers, Goblet, Dried Fruit and Pretzels 1611oil on panel1 ft. 7 3/4 in. x 2 ft. 1 1/4 in.
Dutch Baroque Religious and economic conditions in seventeenth‑century Holland effected artistic patronage and production in the following ways: Amsterdam had the highest per capita income in Europe and enjoyed widespread prosperity across a large proportion of society, expanding the range of art patronage. Political power increasingly passed into the hands of an urban patrician class of merchants. Art patronage catered to the tastes of a middle-class audience. Calvinism demanded a puritanical rejection of art in churches, and thus artists produced relatively little religious art in the Dutch Republic, although it was tolerated when artists created it.
HendrickterBrugghen Calling of Saint Matthew 1621oil on canvas3 ft. 4 in. x 4 ft. 6 in.
The work of Gerrit van Honthorst influencedCaravaggio by the mundane tavern setting and the nocturnal lighting. Gerrit van Honthorst Supper Party 1620oil on canvas7 ft. x 4 ft. 8 in.
Frans Hals was the leading painter of the Haarlem school, and specialized in group portraits The main elements of his style that distinguish his works from those of his contemporaries is that he was less ordered and regimented in his depiction of the sitters than his contemporaries. Each man is both a troop member and an individual. The figures look in multiple directions. He uses the uniformity of attire to create a lively rhythm. Frans Hals Archers of Saint Hadrian ca. 1633oil on canvasapproximately 6 ft. 9 in. x 11 ft.
Frans Hals The Women Regents of the Old Men’s Home at Haarlem 1664oil on canvas5 ft. 7 in. x 8 ft. 2 in.
The surgeon’s guild commissioned Rembrandt to paint The Anatomy of Dr. Tulp. Guilds continued to be active patrons of the arts in addition to the upper-middle, middle, and lower-middle classes who drove most of the market. Rembrandt van Rijn Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp 1632oil on canvas5 ft. 3 3/4 in. x 7 ft. 1 1/4 in.
The Company of Captain Frans FanningCoq, the varnish Rembrandt used, had darkened considerably over time. A feature of the paintingthat led to its being misnamed The Night Watch Devices Rembrant used to enliven the group portrait include the company is presented scurrying about in dramatic lighting. Rembrandt van Rijn The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq(Night Watch) 1642oil on canvas11 ft. 11 in. x 14 ft. 4 in.
He refined light and shade into finer and finer nuances until they blended with one another, a development from earlier painters’ use of abrupt lights and darks. A greater fidelity to actual appearances is created because the eyes perceive light and dark not as static but as always subtly changing. His use of light and shade effected the mood of his later portraits in that the variation of light and shade, subtly modulated, could be read as emotional differences: “the psychology of light.” The prevailing moods are that of quietness, tranquil meditation, philosophical resignation, and musing recollection. Three adjectives or phrases that would contrast Rembrandt’s religious works to Counter-Reformation art works: Spiritual stillness. Humanity and humility of Jesus. Psychological insight and sympathy. Rembrandt van Rijn Return of the Prodigal Son ca. 1665oil on canvas8 ft. 8 in. x 6 ft. 9 in.
Rembrandt trying to express the most subtle nuances of character and mood in his portraits and self-portraits Rembrandt van Rijn Self-Portrait ca. 1659-1660oil on canvas3 ft. 8 3/4 in. x 3 ft. 1 in.
etching. A copper plate is covered in a layer of wax or varnish. The artist incises the design into this surface with an etching needle or pointed tool, exposing the metal below. The plate is then immersed in acid, which eats away the exposed parts of the metal, acting the same as the burin in engraving. Advantages etching has over engraving; It is more manageable than engraving and allows greater freedom in drawing the design. The medium’s softness gives etchers greater carving freedom and offering the greatest subtlety of line and tone. Rembrandt van Rijn Christ with the Sick around Him, Receiving the Children (Hundred Guilder Print) ca. 1649etching11 x 15 1/4 in.
Dutch painter Judith Leyster is most famous for portraiture. • Spontaneity was a characteristic she shared with Hals Judith Leyster Self-Portrait ca. 1630oil on canvas2 ft. 5 3/8 in. x 2 ft. 1 5/8 in.
The Dutch had a very direct relationship to the land, having undertaken an extensive land reclamation project that lasted almost a century that impacted social and economic life. Albert Cuyp A Distant View of Dordrecht, with a Milkmaid and Four Cows and Other Figures (The Large Dort) late 1640soil on canvas5 ft. 1 in. x 6 ft. 4 7/8 in.
Jacob van Ruisdael View of Haarlem from the Dunes at Overveen ca. 1670oil on canvas1 ft. 10 in. x 2 ft. 1 in.
Vermeer's use of light differed from Rembrandt's in that he rendered space so convincingly through his depiction of light that in his works, the picture surfaces functions as an invisible glass pane through which the viewer looks in to the constructed illusion. Jan Vermeer The Letter 1666oil on canvas1 ft. 5 1/4 in. x 1 ft. 3 1/4 in.
camera obscura Light is passed through a tiny pinhole or lens to project an image on a screen or the wall of a room.
Three important facts about the optics of color that are illustrated in Vermeer’s paintings: Shadows are not colorless and dark. Adjoining colors affect each other. Light is composed of colors. Jan Vermeer Allegory of the Art of Painting 1670-1675oil on canvas4 ft. 4 in. x 3 ft. 8 in.
Jan Vermeer Allegory of the Art of Painting 1670-1675oil on canvas4 ft. 4 in. x 3 ft. 8 in.
Jan Vermeer Girl with the Pearl Earring 1670-1675oil on canvas18 x 16 in.
The children’s behavior in The Feast of Saint Nicholas might be a satirical commentary on adult behavior, in this case selfishness, pettiness, and jealousy. The mood created by Steen’s interiors differ from that created by Vermeer's as Steen painted scenes of chaos and disruption with a festive atmosphere. Jan Steen The Feast of Saint Nicholas 1660-1665oil on canvas2 ft. 8 1/4 in. x 2 ft. 3 3/4 in.
“Vanitas” Still lifes that contain objects that function as reminders of death, or memento mori. Pieter Claesz Vanitas Still Life 1630soil on panel1 ft. 2 in. x 1 ft. 11 1/2 in.
Willem Kalf Still Life with a Late Ming Ginger Jar 1669oil on canvas2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 1 3/4 in.
Rachel Ruysch Flower Still Life after 1700oil on canvas2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft.
Georges de La Tour Adoration of the Shepherds 1645-1650oil on canvas3 ft. 6 in. x 4 ft. 6 in.
Louis Le Nain Family of Country People ca. 1640oil on canvas3 ft. 8 in. x 5 ft. 2 in.
Jacques Callot Hanging Tree 1621etching3 3/4 x 7 1/4 in.
Four characteristics of Et in Arcadia Ego are typical of Poussin's fully developed Classical style; Figures based on classical statuary. The compact, balanced grouping of the figures. The even light. The thoughtful, reserved, and mournful mood. Subjects Poussin considered to be appropriate for paintings done in the "grand manner” were battles, heroic actions, and religious themes. Nicholas Poussin Et in Arcadia Ego ca. 1655oil on canvas2 ft. 10 in. x 4 ft.
Nicholas Poussin Burial of Phocion 1648oil on canvas3 ft. 11 in. x 5 ft. 10 in.
Claude Lorrain Landscape with Cattle and Peasants 1629oil on canvas3 ft. 6 in. x 4 ft. 10 1/2 in.
François Girardon & Thomas Regnaudin Apollo Attended by the Nymphs Grotto of Thetis, Park of Versailles Versailles, France ca. 1666-1672marblelife-size