Functions of Nonverbal Communication • Repeats • Substitutes • Accents • Regulates • Contradicts
Often culturally derived--can vary in meaning by culture. • Often the opposite to the verbal message. • Almost impossible not to use NVC. • Up to 70 or 80% of communication, between native speakers, is NVC. • In a cross-cultural interchange, nonverbals are even more important to understanding the total meaning...
In contrast to spoken language, nonverbal language: • . May or may not be systematized, no rules or regularity. • Has no dictionary. • Difficult to ask for clarification. • . Generally impossible to control. • . Nonverbal communication channels are natural, and not learned.
North American Office Japanese Office
Haptics The use of touch in communications. • Haptics or touch refers to communicating through the use of bodily contact . • Some cultures are very comfortable with bodily contact; others avoid it.
In gestures (1991), Roger Axtell has classified the following cultures as “touch” and “don’t touch.
1. body gestures 2. facial expression 3. eye contact 4. posture Kinesics The use of your body in communication, or body movements.
A. body gestures • .
Do’s: Don'ts: Hand Gestures • gesture naturally • gesture nervously tugging your ear • gesture to reinforce your content scratching your arm licking your lips describing size or shape • keep your hands in any one position for too long emphasizing an important point enumerating a list fig leaf" pointing to a specific item in your visual aid parade rest" pocket change jingle" • use stylized, constantly repeating gestures
'Dominant Palm Gesture' 'Submissive Palm Gesture' 'Authoritative Palm Gesture'
Hand Shaking 'Normal hand shake' 'Submissive Handshake' 'Dominant Handshake'
Leg Gestures Crossed-Leg Gestures
Smoking gestures Positive Attitude Negative Attitude
B. Facial Expressions • The face and eyes convey the most expressive types of body language. Research conducted by Leathers (1976) determined these ten types of meaning can be communicated by facial expressions;happiness, suprise, fear, anger, contempt, interest, bewilderment, and determination.
C.Eye Contact The business gaze The social gaze
The intimate gaze The Shut Others Gestures
D. Posture • Posture the way someone stands, sits or walks, can send positive or negative nonverbal messages • Posture can convey self- confidence, status and interest • Confident people generally have a relaxed posture, yet stand errect and walk with assuarance. • Walking with stopped shoulders and slow, hesitating gait projects such negative messages as lack of assurance and confidence
Chronemics • The use of time in communication. • Hall (1983) distinguished 2 patterns of time that govern different cultures: Monochronic Time Schedule and Polychronic Time Schedule
Monochronic and Polychronic Polychronic Monochronic • Does one thing at a time. • Time is very serious! • Job tends to be more important than family even. • Privacy is extremely important. -Seldom borrows or lends -Works independentl • Does several things at a time. • Time is important but not sacred. • Family and interpersonal relationships are more important than work. • Actively involved with others. (Latin Americans, Mediterranean people, Arabians) (United States, Germany, Scandinavia and Switzerland. )
Beyond M- Time and P-time, Hall (1959) also differentiatesfive time intervals for arriving late for appointments • mumble something time • slight apology time • midly insulting time • rude time • downright insulting time