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Overview of Science Education & Science Process Skills. ELED 4312 Science Method Class Week 2. What Is Science?. What Is Science?. Discovering nature Organizing facts into theories A method of discovery A body of organized knowledge Problem Solving A process of finding out
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Overview of Science Education & Science Process Skills ELED 4312 Science Method Class Week 2
What Is Science? • Discovering nature • Organizing facts into theories • A method of discovery • A body of organized knowledge • Problem Solving • A process of finding out • Logical reasoning • A study of the universe • The search for truth • Observing and describing reality
What Is Science? • Science is the study of nature in an attempt to understand it and to form an organized body of knowledge that has predictive power and application in society (Edward Teller, 1991) • The Key terms- understand, explain, and apply, along with observation, experimentation, and reasoning
Three Ways of Defining Science • Science as Inquiry Process Skills that Lead to Discovery • Science as Knowledge • Science as a Set of Values - Truth, Freedom, Skepticism, Order, Originality, and Communication
Goals of Science Education • Goals of Science Education has been changed as its emphasis in science education has been changed. • Science Education Timeline: History of Science Education • Paradigm Shift
Goals of Science Education • The elementary science program must provide opportunities for students to develop understanding and skills necessary to function productively as problem-solvers in a scientific and technological world ( by National Science Teachers Association) • Science education should prepare individuals to utilize science for improving their own lives and for coping with an increasingly technological world (NSES)
Select your science activity file topic! • Grade level TEKS review • Your school district curriculum review
Learning Approaches in Science Teaching • Discovery Learning • Inquiry-Based Learning • 5E Approach (Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate) • Inductive Learning • Deductive Learning
Constructivism • Basically, constructivism views that knowledge is not 'about' the world, but rather 'constitutive' of the world (Sherman, 1995). Knowledge is not a fixed object, it is constructed by an individual through his/her own experience of that object. • Constructivism's central idea is that human learning is constructed, that learners build new knowledge upon the foundation of previous learning. This view of learning sharply contrasts with one in which learning is the passive transmission of information from one individual to another, a view in which reception, not construction, is key.
Discovery Learning “Discovery simply means coming to know something you didn’t know before.” - Discovery Learning happens when a child uncovers new information or gleans new insight about how to approach a problem or task and then completes the task or solve the problem on her or his own. It is an individual and personal experience. - Classrooms don’t discover; individual children do.
Inquiry-Based Learning “ Inquiry is a very careful and systematic method of exploring the unknown so that discoveries are made.” • Inquiry is a word that has been used over and over in science education to characterize the active processes involved in scientific thinking, investigation, and the construction of knowledge. • Discovery: The Destination • Inquiry: The Path
Inquiry-Based Learning • According to the National Science Education Standards (NSES): “ Scientific inquiry refers to the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based in the evidence derived from their work. Inquiry also refers to the activities of students in which they develop knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, as well as an understanding of how scientists study the natural world.
Examples of Inquiry Methods • Making observation • Posing questions • Examining books and other sources of information to see what is already known • Planning investigations • Reviewing what is already known based on experimental evidence • Using tools to gather, analyze and interpret data • Proposing answers, explanations, and predictions and communicating the results
Science (Inquiry) Process Skills • Some specific classroom skills that students need in order to actively participate in the process of investigation activities • The Basic Science Process Skills : Observing, Classifying, Measuring, Communicating, Predicting, inferring • The integrated Science Process Skills : Controlling Variables, Interpreting Data, Formulating Hypotheses, Defining Operationally, Experimenting