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The Nature of Science & Science Skills Test Review Research starts with a … Research question What the scientists wants to know What are the two general types of research: Experimental Descriptive Descriptive research is… Based mainly on observations

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research starts with a
Research starts with a …
  • Research question
    • What the scientists wants to know
descriptive research is
Descriptive research is…
  • Based mainly on observations
examples of descriptive research are
Examples of descriptive research are…
  • Making models
  • Dissections
  • Observing animals in the wild
for example
For example…

How do the survivors of a disaster react to the disaster?

No variables; data is based on watching and talking to survivors

experimental research is
Experimental research is…
  • The manipulation and control of variables
what are the three types of variables
What are the three types of variables?
  • Independent variables
  • Dependent variables
  • Controlled variables
    • Also called constants
independent variables are
Independent variables are…
  • What is being tested
  • What is being changed
  • The difference between the groups
  • The ‘cause’ of a change
dependent variables are
Dependent variables are…
  • What is observed
  • What is measured
  • The data
  • The ‘effect’ caused by the independent variable
controlled variables are
Controlled variables are…
  • Things that could change, but don’t
  • Kept constant by the scientist
  • Allow for a fair test
so an experimental question has to indicate the variables
So an experimental question has to indicate the variables
  • How the independent variable will AFFECT the dependent variable
  • What the EFFECT of the independent variable will be on the dependent variable
for example14
For example…
  • How does the temperature of ocean water affect the speed of a hurricane?
    • Independent variable
      • T of ocean water
    • Dependent variable
      • Speed of a hurricane
predictions
Predictions
  • Educated guesses about what will happen during an investigation
    • Based on prior knowledge (observations, background research, etc)
for example16
For example…

People in disasters will react by trying to help others as much as possible.

This is a PREDICTION because it’s a guess about what you think will happen.

hypothesis plural hypotheses
Hypothesis(plural – hypotheses)
  • Special kind of prediction
  • What makes it so special???
    • It’s a guess about the VARIABLES & their relationship, in particular,
      • How will the independent variable affect the dependent variable?????????
how to write a hypothesis
How to write a hypothesis
  • Use an If, Then statement
  • IF the independent variable changes, THEN the dependent variable changes
    • This type of sentence shows what the IV will do to the DV
for example19
For example…
  • IF the T of ocean water increases, THEN the speed of a hurricane will increase.
  • This shows the expected relationship between the independent variable (the T of ocean water) and the dependent variable (the speed of a hurricane)
    • If the T of ocean water changes, it will cause the speed of a hurricane to change too.
the null hypothesis
The null hypothesis
  • A statistical procedure
  • Stated as if there will be no relationship between the variables
for example21
For example…
  • There is no relationship between water temperature and the speed of a hurricane
planning the investigation experimental design
Planning the investigation – Experimental Design
  • You absolutely, positively have to know what the variables are!
    • What you are changing
      • How you are changing
    • What you are measuring
      • How you are measuring
    • Repeated trials
    • Data tables
data tables
Data tables?
  • Numerical (quantitative) data organized in rows and columns
  • The specific independent variables are listed
  • The number of trials are listed
  • Blanks are left for the data (dependent variable) to be filled in
analyzing the data
Analyzing the data
  • Reduce the data
    • Do something to make the amount of data smaller
      • Central tendencies
        • Mean (average)
        • Median
        • Mode
        • Range
        • frequency
analyzing the data26
Analyzing the data
  • Graph the data
    • Lets us see trends, patterns, relationships, comparisons
    • Bar graphs
      • Let us compare data
    • Line graphs
      • Let us see trends or changes
    • Scatter plots
      • Shows correlations or associations between variables
bar graph
Bar graph

This shows a comparison of the types and amounts of trash found on a beach

line graph
Line graph

This shows a change in grade point averages; the trend is an increase in GPA

scatter plot positive correlation
Scatter plotPositive Correlation

An increase in the variable on the X-axis is associated with an increase in the variable on the Y-axis

scatter plot negative correlation
Scatter plotNegative Correlation

An increase in the variable on the X-axis is associated with an decrease in the variable on the Y-axis

scatter plot no correlation
Scatter plotNo Correlation

Random data points – there is no association between the variables

conclusions
Conclusions
  • How we sum up the investigation
    • Does the data support the hypothesis?
      • If it does – we accept the hypothesis
      • If it does not – we reject the hypothesis
    • All back up what you say with data
      • Evidence
    • Discuss issues or problems with the investigation
    • Discuss the importance or relevance of the investigation
communicate what you know
Communicate what you know
  • Finding out something new doesn’t do anyone any good unless the new knowledge is shared
    • Journals & magazines
    • Presentations